Document Detail

Delivery and development: to what extent can one associate cause and effect?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  6453995     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Data on 570 mothers and their children whose development was personally assessed from birth to four years were analysed. Strong associations were found between the incidence of fetal distress during labour, birth asphyxia, and delivery by emergency caesarean section. At the age of four years girls and children in the non-manual social classes were more advanced, developmentally, than boys and children in the manual classes. No associations were found between perinatal factors and total developmental scores; but highly significant differences were found between `at risk' pregnancy groups according to their method of developmental scores. In only one of seven handicapped children could the handicap possibly have been attributable to delivery factors. Case histories of two children illustrate the dangers and difficulties of associating cause and effect in individual patients.
M Ounsted; A Scott; V Moar
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine     Volume:  73     ISSN:  0141-0768     ISO Abbreviation:  J R Soc Med     Publication Date:  1980 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1981-08-10     Completed Date:  1981-08-10     Revised Date:  2010-10-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7802879     Medline TA:  J R Soc Med     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  786-92     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Birth Weight
Cesarean Section
Child Development*
Delivery, Obstetric / methods*
Disabled Persons
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Obstetric Labor Complications
Prospective Studies

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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