Document Detail

Decreasing retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in human milk and infant formula using varied bottle systems.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21083843     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Expressing human milk has become a more common alternative for mothers, as the average work demand has increased. As more mothers must work, bottle feeding trends are increasingly common. The handling and storage of human milk introduce the risk of degradation to expressed human milk and infant formula. In following a 20-minute simulated feeding, Vitamin C has been found to degrade. Vitamin C acts as an anti-oxidant and is responsible for shielding other nutrients from oxidation, such as retinol and alpha-tocopherol. By analyzing a 20-minute simulated feeding, retinol and alpha-tocopherol each displayed decreases over time significantly different than that of the Control, which was milk not exposed to bottle feeding. In human milk, retinol showed as high as a 9.5% decrease compared to the Control. Similar trends were seen with the infant formula samples. The correlation between degradation and bottle feeding systems was dependent upon the formation of bubbles in the milk as the milk was removed from the bottle. The analysis indicated a decrease of up to 12%, as seen in retinol, and 35%, as seen in alpha-tocopherol. These decreases in retinol and alpha-tocopherol should be considered when using a bottle feeding system to deliver either human milk or formula to an infant. More research is necessary to determine the effect of this decrease on the nutritional status of infants, particularly premature infants, who are at higher risk for nutrient deficiencies.
Jimi Francis; Kristy Rogers; Darby Dickton; Roxanna Twedt; Ron Pardini
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-11-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Maternal & child nutrition     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1740-8709     ISO Abbreviation:  Matern Child Nutr     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-03-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101201025     Medline TA:  Matern Child Nutr     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  215-24     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Department of Biochemistry, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan, USA Medical School, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.
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