Document Detail


Decision-making capacities and affective reward anticipation in DWI recidivists compared to non-offenders: a preliminary study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22269545     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: Impaired decision making is seen in several problem behaviours including alcoholism and problem gambling. Decision-making style may contribute to driving while impaired with alcohol (DWI) in some offenders as well. The Somatic Marker Framework theorizes that decision making is the product of two interacting affective neural systems, an impulsive, rapid, amygdala-dependent process for emotionally signalling the immediate negative or positive consequences of an option, and a reflective, longer-lasting, ventral medial prefrontal cortex dependent system for emotionally signalling the future negative or positive prospects of an option. This study tested the hypothesis that offenders who showed disadvantageous decision-making would be at higher risk for recidivism than those who showed more advantageous decision-making. In addition, in line with the Somatic Marker Hypothesis, offenders who showed disadvantageous decision-making would exhibit a distinct pattern of somatic activation compared to offenders who showed more advantageous decision-making.
METHODS: A sample of 21 DWI offenders with from 2 to 7 past DWI convictions and a reference group consisting of 19 non-offender (N-O) drivers were recruited and administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), as well as evaluated on sociodemographic, driving and alcohol use dimensions. In addition, anticipatory skin conductance response (aSCR) was measured in the 5s prior to each of a 100 card draws on the IGT.
RESULTS: Median split of the DWI offender sample based upon overall performance on the IGT yielded two subgroups (IGT-R Hi and IGT-R Lo). Hypothesis 1 was supported, as the IGT-R Lo group possessed significantly greater frequency of past DWI convictions and severity of past drinking. Descriptive analyses revealed that on the IGT, IGT-R Hi group performed similarly to the N-O reference group while the IGT-R Lo group performed significantly worse. Hypothesis 2 was not supported.
CONCLUSIONS: Decision making is a plausible explanatory neurocognitive pathway to severer forms of DWI. The role of emotional processing in DWI risk is uncertain. Subtyping DWI offenders using neurocognitive criteria seems a promising avenue for improving clinically meaningful methods of DWI risk assessment and intervention.
Authors:
Sioui Maldonado Bouchard; Thomas G Brown; Louise Nadeau
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-11-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Accident; analysis and prevention     Volume:  45     ISSN:  1879-2057     ISO Abbreviation:  Accid Anal Prev     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-24     Completed Date:  2012-05-31     Revised Date:  2014-03-25    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1254476     Medline TA:  Accid Anal Prev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  580-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Accidents, Traffic / legislation & jurisprudence*,  prevention & control
Adult
Affect / drug effects*
Alcoholic Intoxication / psychology*
Alcoholism / diagnosis,  psychology
Arousal / drug effects*
Automobile Driving / legislation & jurisprudence*,  psychology*
Breath Tests
Culture*
Decision Making / drug effects*
Ethanol / adverse effects*,  blood
Female
Galvanic Skin Response / drug effects
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Quebec
Recurrence
Reward*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
//Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
3K9958V90M/Ethanol

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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