Document Detail

De Novo Malignancies after Organ Transplantation: Focus on Viral Infections.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23278452     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Organ transplantation is an increasingly used medical procedure for treating otherwise fatal end-stage organ diseases with 107,000 transplants performed worldwide in 2010. A large number of newly developed anti-rejection drugs were developed. They prolong long-term survival of both the individual and the transplanted organ and constitute the main reason of the diffusion of organ transplantation. Presently, 5-year patient survival rates are around 90% after kidney transplant and 70% after liver transplant. However, the prolonged chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs is well known to increase the risks of opportunistic diseases, particularly infections and virus-related malignancies. Although transplant recipients experience a nearly 2-fold elevated risk for all types of de-novo cancers, persistent infections with oncogenic viruses - such as Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, high-risk human papillomaviruses, and Epstein-Barr virus - are associated with up to 100-fold increased risks. This review, focusing on kidney and liver transplants, highlights updated evidences linking iatrogenic immunosuppression, persistent infections with oncogenic viruses and cancer risk. The implicit capacity of oncogenic viruses to immortalise infected cells by disrupting the cell-cycle control can lead, in a setting of induced lowered immune surveillance, to tumorigenesis and this ability is thought to closely correlate with cumulative exposure to immunosuppressive drugs. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between viral infections, immunosuppressive drugs and the risk of skin cancers, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, Kaposi sarcoma, cervical and other ano-genital cancers are reviewed in details.
P Piselli; G Busnach; L Fratino; F Citterio; G M Ettorre; P De Paoli; D Serraino
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-01
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current molecular medicine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1875-5666     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Mol. Med.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101093076     Medline TA:  Curr Mol Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Unit of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, IRCCS, via F. Gallini, 2, 33081 Aviano (PN), Italy.
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