Document Detail

DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism moderates the association between maternal unresolved loss or trauma and infant disorganization.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17178609     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Previous studies have related attachment disorganization in children to either dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms or maternal unresolved loss or trauma and frightening or anomalous parenting. In this study it was examined whether the interaction between genetic (DRD4 7-repeat and -521 C/T) and environmental risk factors (maternal unresolved loss/trauma and maternal frightening behavior) was associated with infant disorganization. A moderating role of the DRD4 gene was found. Maternal unresolved loss or trauma was associated with infant disorganization, but only in the presence of the DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism. The increase in risk for disorganization in children with the 7-repeat allele exposed to maternal unresolved loss/trauma compared to children without these combined risks was 18.8 fold. Similar moderating effects were not found for maternal frightening behavior. Our findings indicate that children are differentially susceptible to unresolved loss or trauma dependent on the presence of the 7-repeat DRD4 allele.
Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn; Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Attachment & human development     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1461-6734     ISO Abbreviation:  Attach Hum Dev     Publication Date:  2006 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-12-20     Completed Date:  2007-03-22     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100901315     Medline TA:  Attach Hum Dev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  291-307     Citation Subset:  IM    
Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Anxiety, Separation / genetics
Caspases, Initiator
Infant Behavior / physiology,  psychology*
Minisatellite Repeats
Mother-Child Relations*
Mothers / psychology*
Object Attachment*
Parenting / psychology*
Polymorphism, Genetic*
Receptors, Dopamine D4 / genetics*
Stress Disorders, Traumatic / psychology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/DRD4 protein, human; 137750-34-6/Receptors, Dopamine D4; EC 3.4.22.-/CASP4 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.-/Caspases, Initiator

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