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The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20130095     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The range of human milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations worldwide is much broader than the range explored in randomized clinical trials to date. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the effect of 4 amounts of DHA supplementation on the visual acuity of formula-fed infants at 12 mo of age. Secondary objectives were to evaluate visual acuity maturation, red blood cell fatty acids, tolerance, anthropometric measures, and adverse events. DESIGN: This double-masked, randomized trial was conducted at 2 sites (Dallas and Kansas City). Three hundred forty-three healthy, term, formula-fed infants were enrolled at 1-9 d of age and were randomly assigned to be fed 1 of the following 4 infant formulas containing equivalent nutrient amounts, except for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: control (0% DHA), 0.32% DHA, 0.64% DHA, or 0.96% DHA; DHA-supplemented formulas also provided 0.64% arachidonic acid. Visual acuity was measured by visual evoked potentials in 244 infants who completed the 12-mo primary outcome examination. RESULTS: Infants fed control formula had significantly poorer visual evoked potential visual acuity at 12 mo of age than did infants who received any of the DHA-supplemented formulas (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in visual evoked potential visual acuity between the 3 amounts of DHA supplementation for either site at any age tested. CONCLUSIONS: DHA supplementation of infant formula at 0.32% of total fatty acids improves visual acuity. Higher amounts of DHA supplementation were not associated with additional improvement of visual acuity. This trial was registered at as NCT00753818.
Eileen E Birch; Susan E Carlson; Dennis R Hoffman; Kathleen M Fitzgerald-Gustafson; Valeria L N Fu; James R Drover; Yolanda S Casta?eda; Laura Minns; Dianna K H Wheaton; David Mundy; John Marunycz; Deborah A Diersen-Schade
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-02-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  91     ISSN:  1938-3207     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2010 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-03-22     Completed Date:  2010-04-07     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  848-59     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Retina Foundation of the Southwest, Dallas, TX 75231, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Arachidonic Acid / administration & dosage
Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
Docosahexaenoic Acids / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Double-Blind Method
Evoked Potentials, Visual / drug effects*
Infant Formula
Infant, Newborn / growth & development*,  physiology
Neurogenesis / drug effects*
United States
Vision, Ocular / drug effects*,  physiology
Visual Acuity / drug effects*,  physiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Fats; 25167-62-8/Docosahexaenoic Acids; 506-32-1/Arachidonic Acid
Comment In:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr;91(4):827-8   [PMID:  20200255 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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