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Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Damage Induced by Halobenzoquinones to T24 Bladder Cancer Cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23368424     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Four halobenzoquinones (HBQs), 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DCMBQ), 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), and 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone (DBBQ), have been recently confirmed as disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water; however, their toxicological information is scarce. Here, we report that HBQs are cytotoxic to T24 bladder cancer cells and that the IC50 values are 95 µM for DCBQ, 110 µM for DCMBQ, 151 µM for TCBQ, and 142 µM for DBBQ, after a 24 h exposure. The antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduces the cytotoxicity induced by the four HBQs, supporting the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to the cytotoxicity of HBQs. To further explore oxidative mechanisms of cytotoxicity, we examined HBQ-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in T24 cells, and measured 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyls, and malondialdehyde (MDA) adducts of proteins, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids, respectively. All four HBQs generated intracellular ROS in T24 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. HBQs also produced 8-OHdG in genomic DNA of T24 cells, with the highest levels of 8-OHdG induced by DCMBQ. Protein carbonylation was significantly increased in T24 cells that were incubated with each of the four HBQs for 24 h. However, MDA adduct formation, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was not affected by any of the four HBQs tested. These results suggest that the ROS-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein carbonylation is involved in the observed toxicity of HBQs in T24 cells.
Authors:
Haiying Du; Jinhua Li; Claire F McGuigan; Birget Moe; Shengwen Shen; Xing-Fang Li
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-2-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-2-1     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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