Document Detail

Cytokines, infections, stress, and dysphoric moods in breastfeeders and formula feeders.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16958715     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships between stress, moods, and immunity in breastfeeding compared to formula-feeding mothers. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 181 healthy mothers, exclusively breastfeeding or formula feeding, studied at 4 to 6 weeks after childbirth. SETTING: Mothers were recruited in the postpartum unit of the hospital and then visited in their homes once at 4 to 6 weeks after childbirth for data collection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stress, mood, infection symptoms, and serum levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 were measured. RESULTS: Formula-feeding mothers had evidence of decreased interferon-gamma and a decreased serum Th1/Th2 ratio (interferon-gamma/interleukin-10) when perceived stress, dysphoric moods, and negative life events were high, an effect consistent with depression of cellular immunity. However, women who were breastfeeding did not show these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that breastfeeding confers some psychoneuroimmunological benefit to mothers, perhaps through prolactin or hypothalamic-hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis stress refractoriness.
Maureen W Groer; Mitzi W Davis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG     Volume:  35     ISSN:  0884-2175     ISO Abbreviation:  J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs     Publication Date:    2006 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-09-08     Completed Date:  2006-11-20     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8503123     Medline TA:  J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  599-607     Citation Subset:  IM; N    
Copyright Information:
(c) 2006, AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
University of South Florida College of Nursing, Tampa, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Bottle Feeding / adverse effects,  psychology*
Breast Feeding / psychology*
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cytokines / blood*,  immunology
Depression, Postpartum / blood,  etiology*,  immunology,  psychology
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / immunology
Immune Tolerance
Infection / blood,  etiology*,  psychology
Interferon-gamma / blood
Interleukin-10 / blood
Lactation / blood,  immunology,  psychology
Mothers / psychology*
Pituitary-Adrenal System / immunology
Prolactin / immunology
Stress, Psychological / blood,  etiology*,  immunology,  psychology
Th1 Cells / immunology
Th2 Cells / immunology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cytokines; 130068-27-8/Interleukin-10; 82115-62-6/Interferon-gamma; 9002-62-4/Prolactin

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