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Cytokines and epilepsy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21216630     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder affecting approximately 8 out of 1000 people. Its pathophysiology, however, has remained elusive in many regards. Consequently, adequate seizure control is still lacking in about one third of patients. Cytokines are soluble mediators of cell communication that are critical in immune regulation. In recent years, studies have shown that epileptic seizures can induce the production of cytokines, which in turn influence the pathogenesis and course of epilepsies. At the time of this review, the focus is mostly on interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding these cytokines and their potential roles in epilepsy. The focus concentrates on their expression and influence on induced seizures in animal models of epilepsy, as well as findings in human studies. Both proconvulsive and anticonvulsive effects have been reported for each of these molecules. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that cytokines play dichotomous roles through multiple pathways, each of which is dependent on free concentration and available receptors. Furthermore, the immune-mediated leakage in the blood-brain-barrier also plays an important role in epileptogenesis. Nonetheless, these observations demonstrate the multifarious nature of cytokine networks and the complex relationship between the immune system and epilepsy. Future studies are warranted to further clarify the influence of the immune system on epilepsy and vice versa.
Authors:
Gang Li; Sebastian Bauer; Mareike Nowak; Braxton Norwood; Björn Tackenberg; Felix Rosenow; Susanne Knake; Wolfgang H Oertel; Hajo M Hamer
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-1-7
Journal Detail:
Title:  Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-2688     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-1-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9306979     Medline TA:  Seizure     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, University of Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35033 Marburg, Germany.
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