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Cytogenetics of pearl millet.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24271367     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
The somatic karyotype of pearl millet Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke. (2n = 14) has been studied in several cultivars, but few cytological markers have been discovered which could help in the easy identification of the chromosomes. Analysis of pachytene bivalents permits such identification but is feasible only in a few cultivars. Recently, several lines having telocentric chromosomes have been produced and classified but their potentialities as cytogenetic tools have yet to be explored. Some African populations of pearl millet carry B-chromosomes in their karyotype. Cytogenetics of B-chromosomes has been reported in great detail. Bs undergo spontaneous changes to produce deficient- and iso-chromosomes. The main effect of B-chromosomes is on chiasma frequency which is exerted by the relative amounts of chiasma promoting euchromatin and the chiasma depressing heterochromatin in the Bs. Haploid plants occur occasionally and sometimes show a low degree of seed set, offering a possibility of establishing homozygous inbred lines. Cytogenetics of several spontaneous and induced autotetraploids have been reported. In general quadrivalent formation between the seven sets of four homologues was random. Seed set of the autotetraploids could be improved by selection; improved seed fertility was found to be associated with increased chiasma frequency, increased quadrivalent frequency and regular distribution of chromosomes at anaphase I. Genes controlling morphological characters of plant phenotype segregate independent of those controlling fertility and in pearl millet polyploidy per se is not limiting to plant vigour. Primary trisomics represent the best studied among the aneuploids of pearl millet. All the seven primary trisomics have been identified and described. Some were used in assigning genes to specific chromosomes but in general trisomies have poor vigour and fertility, and show low frequency of transmission. Apart from B-chromosomes, cytogenetics of interchanges has been the best studied aspect of pearl millet. The frequency of co-orientation of an interchange complex at metaphase I, which determines the fertility or sterility of the interchange heterozygote, is influenced by the genetic background and thus is theoretically amenable for selection leading to improved fertility of the heterozygote. Interchange tester-stocks have been assembled which can be used to identify the chromosomes involved in any newly obtained interchange. A complex interchange line involving all the chromosomes of the complement has also been produced, but the ring-of-fourteen produces total male and female sterility.Genotypic control of mitosis and meiosis has been reported, with reference to chromosome numerical mosaicism, multiploid sporocytes, desynapsis and chromosome fragmentation, and male sterility. Pearl millet being a largely outbreeding species, forced inbreeding was mainly found to result in loss of morphological vigour and reduction in mean chiasma frequency per PMC. Interspecific hybrids between pearl millet and several related species have been cytologically investigated and homology of the seven chromosomes of pearl millet with seven of the fourteen chromosomes of P. purpureum has been demonstrated. Cytogenetic evidence from haploids, autopolyploids and interspecific hybrids has indications to suggest that the haploid number of x = 7 is derived from x = 5, but the evidence is inconclusive and needs critical evaluation.
J V Pantulu; M R Krishna
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik     Volume:  61     ISSN:  0040-5752     ISO Abbreviation:  Theor. Appl. Genet.     Publication Date:  1982 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-11-25     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0145600     Medline TA:  Theor Appl Genet     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-17     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Botany, Andhra University, Waltair, India.
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