Document Detail

Cuticular waxes from ivy leaves (Hedera helix L.): analysis of high-molecular-weight esters.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17260699     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Soluble waxes were extracted from the cuticle of ivy (Hedera helix L.) leaves with dichloromethane in a yield of ca. 13%. The cuticular waxes were directly analysed by GC-MS, high-temperature GC-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The GC-MS analysis showed mostly n-alkanols (45.3%), monoacids (18.8%), triterpenes (9.7%), n-aldehydes (8.7%) and n-alkanes (7.7%). The high-temperature GC-MS and the ESI-MS/MS analyses showed the presence of ester waxes, namely alkyl alkanoates and alkyl coumarates. Alkyl alkanoates comprised esters of the hexadecanoic acid with n-alkanols ranging from C16 to C34. Alkyl coumarates included esters of coumaric acid with n-alkanols ranging from C16 to C32. The cuticular waxes were hydrolysed and the resulting organic and aqueous phases analysed by GC-MS. The hydrolysate showed a major increase in the quantities of n-alkanols, hexadecanoic acid and coumaric acid derived from the alkyl and acyl moieties from the ester waxes. A content of ester waxes of 38% was estimated based on the results from the GC-MS analysis of the non-hydrolysed and hydrolysed cuticular waxes. Alkyl alkanoates were analysed by ESI-MS/MS as [M + Li]+ adduct ions and the alkyl coumarates as [M - H]- deprotonated ions. The ESI-MS/MS analysis allowed the detection of a wider range of ester waxes than high-temperature GC-MS, and was shown to be a useful technique for the qualitative analysis of ester waxes from plant cuticles.
Sara Santos; Lukas Schreiber; José Graça
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Phytochemical analysis : PCA     Volume:  18     ISSN:  0958-0344     ISO Abbreviation:  Phytochem Anal     Publication Date:    2007 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-01-30     Completed Date:  2007-02-13     Revised Date:  2012-12-10    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9200492     Medline TA:  Phytochem Anal     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  60-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisboa, Portugal.
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MeSH Terms
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Esters / analysis*
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Hedera / chemistry*
Molecular Weight
Plant Leaves / chemistry
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Waxes / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Esters; 0/Waxes

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