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Current perspectives in bladder cancer management.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23137019     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
More than 350,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year; the vast majority (> 90%) of these are transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). The most important risk factors for the development of bladder cancer are smoking and occupational exposure to toxic chemicals. Painless visible haematuria is the most common presenting symptom of bladder cancer; significant haematuria requires referral to a specialist urology service. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are currently the recommended tools for diagnosis of bladder cancer. Excluding muscle invasion is an important diagnostic step, as outcomes for patients with muscle invasive TCC are less favourable. For non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, transurethral resection followed by intravesical chemotherapy (typically Mitomycin C or epirubicin) or immunotherapy [bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)] is the current standard of care. For patients failing BCG therapy, cystectomy is recommended; for patients unsuitable for surgery, the choice of treatment options is currently limited. However, novel interventions, such as chemohyperthermia and electromotive drug administration, enhance the effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and are being evaluated in Phase III trials. Radical cystectomy (with pelvic lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion) or radical radiotherapy are the current established treatments for muscle invasive TCC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is recommended before definitive treatment of muscle invasive TCC; cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy is the recommended regimen. Palliative chemotherapy is the first-choice treatment in metastatic TCC.
Authors:
T R L Griffiths;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-9
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of clinical practice     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1742-1241     ISO Abbreviation:  Int. J. Clin. Pract.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9712381     Medline TA:  Int J Clin Pract     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Affiliation:
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Clinical Sciences Unit, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, UK.
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