Document Detail

Coxsackievirus B transmission and possible new roles for extracellular vesicles.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23356301     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Coxsackievirus B1, a member of the Picornaviridae family is a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus associated with human diseases including myocarditis and pancreatitis. Infection of the intestinal mucosa, lined by polarized epithelial cells, requires interaction of coxsackievirus with apically located DAF (decay-accelerating factor) before transport to the basolaterally located CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor), where entry is mediated by endocytosis. As with many other non-enveloped viruses, coxsackievirus has to induce lysis of host cells in order to perpetuate infection. However, recent evidence indicates that virus spread to secondary sites is not only achieved by a lytic mechanism and a non-lytic cell-cell strategy has been suggested for coxsackievirus B3. A physical interaction between infected and non-infected cells has been shown to be an efficient mechanism for retroviral transmission and one type of extracellular vesicle, the exosome, has been implicated in HIV-1 transmission. HIV-1 also takes advantage of depolymerization of actin for spread between T-cells. Calpain-mediated depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, as a result of increases in intracellular calcium concentration during coxsackievirus infection, would result in a release of host cell-derived microvesicles. If so, we speculate that maybe such microvesicles, increasingly recognized as major vehicles mediating intercellular communication, could play a role in the intercellular transmission of non-enveloped viruses.
Jameel M Inal; Samireh Jorfi
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biochemical Society transactions     Volume:  41     ISSN:  1470-8752     ISO Abbreviation:  Biochem. Soc. Trans.     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506897     Medline TA:  Biochem Soc Trans     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  299-302     Citation Subset:  IM    
Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, U.K.
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