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Coupled Electrochemical Reactions at Bipolar Microelectrodes and Nanoelectrodes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22229756     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Recent growing interest in bipolar electrochemistry has resulted in the development of several new analytical applications. Much of the previous work has focused on the use of an "open" bipolar system in which a microchannel is typically used to accommodate the bipolar electrode (BPE) allowing for an ion current to flow between the two driving electrodes. The presence of the ionic current can cause a significant voltage drop such that the total voltage applied between the driving electrodes are normally much higher than that needed to drive redox reactions at the BPEs. A "closed" BPE with no solution exchange between two separated compartments has remained relatively unexplored in the field of analytical chemistry, yet many potential applications exist. In order to better understand the properties of closed BPEs and make reliable quantitative measurements through their use we set out to further investigate the voltammetric response of micro- and nanoscale bipolar electrodes. We use steady-state cyclic voltammetry to discuss the relative pole-to-pole limitations including unbalanced redox molecule concentration and asymmetric pole size. The ability to quantitatively measure voltammetric properties of both the cathodic and anodic poles of a BPE from a single voltammogram is demonstrated. It was found that "secondary" reactions such as oxygen reduction and water oxidation play an important role in this process. A brief examination of carbon fiber microelectrodes, routinely used in neurotransmitter detection, reveals their behavior as BPEs when commonly prepared by backfilling with an electrolyte to establish conductivity. We also describe the fabrication and characterization of Pt bipolar nanoelectrodes which may serve as a useful platform for future advances in nanoscale bipolar electrochemistry.
Authors:
Joshua P Guerrette; Stephen M Oja; Bo Zhang
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-9
Journal Detail:
Title:  Analytical chemistry     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-6882     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370536     Medline TA:  Anal Chem     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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