Document Detail


Corticotropin-releasing factor: an antireproductive hormone of the testis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8382638     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the key neuropeptide in the stress cascade, has major inhibitory actions on testicular function in addition to its known antireproductive effects at the central level (inhibition of sexual behavior and LH secretion). CRF is secreted by the Leydig cells of the testis and acts through high-affinity receptors at the Leydig cell membrane as a potent negative regulator of LH action, inhibiting gonadotropin-induced cAMP generation and androgen production. CRF is also a primary stimulus of beta-endorphin secretion by the Leydig cells, which in turn exerts paracrine inhibition of FSH action in the tubular compartment of the testis through high-affinity receptors in the Sertoli cells. CRF action in the Leydig cells involves a pertussis toxin-insensitive guanyl nucleotide regulatory unit. In contrast to CRF receptors in the brain, pituitary, and other peripheral tissues, those in the Leydig cell are not coupled to Gs. The inhibitory action of CRF in the Leydig cell is exerted through protein kinase C, at the level of the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase. The secretion of CRF by the Leydig cell is stimulated by LH, acting via release of serotonin (5HT) and autocrine activation of 5HT2 receptors. Serotonin acts on 5HT2 receptors in the Leydig cell to stimulate CRF secretion via a pertussis toxin insensitive G-protein and presumably through activation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The diversity of the biochemical responses to CRF and 5HT2 receptor activation (i.e., inhibition of adenylate cyclase at the cytoplasmic aspect of the cell membrane vs. stimulation of CRF release from secretion granules) may reflect the stimulation of different protein kinase C isoenzymes. The LH-->5HT-->CRF inhibitory loop serves to continuously buffer the stimulation of androgen production by gonadotropin. 5HT, the immediate stimulus of testicular CRF secretion, is released during stress and is locally increased in the testis in pathological conditions associated with impaired testicular function (i.e., orchitis, varicocele). Also, propranolol, the beta-adrenergic antagonist frequently used in the control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension and often associated with impotence, acts via a serotonergic mechanism to stimulate CRF secretion and causes marked inhibition of LH-induced cAMP production and steroidogenesis in cultured Leydig cells. These basic studies of 5HT and CRF are relevant to the pathogenesis of testicular dysfunction and for the development of antagonist therapies to block CRF production and its local antireproductive effects.
Authors:
M L Dufau; J C Tinajero; A Fabbri
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology     Volume:  7     ISSN:  0892-6638     ISO Abbreviation:  FASEB J.     Publication Date:  1993 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-03-29     Completed Date:  1993-03-29     Revised Date:  2012-02-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8804484     Medline TA:  FASEB J     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  299-307     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Section on Molecular Endocrinology, ERRB, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology*,  secretion
Humans
Leydig Cells / secretion
Male
Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
Receptors, Neurotransmitter / metabolism
Signal Transduction
Testis / cytology,  physiology*,  secretion
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0/Receptors, Neurotransmitter; 9015-71-8/Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

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