|Corticotropin releasing factor-induced CREB activation in striatal neurons occurs via a novel Gβγ signaling pathway.|
|Jump to Full Text|
|PMID: 21448293 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|The peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was initially identified as a critical component of the stress response. CRF exerts its cellular effects by binding to one of two cognate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) or 2 (CRFR2). While these GPCRs were originally characterized as being coupled to Gα(s), leading to downstream activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and subsequent increases in cAMP, it has since become clear that CRFRs couple to and activate numerous other downstream signaling cascades. In addition, CRF signaling influences the activity of many diverse brain regions, affecting a variety of behaviors. One of these regions is the striatum, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). CRF exerts profound effects on striatal-dependent behaviors such as drug addiction, pair-bonding, and natural reward. Recent data indicate that at least some of these behaviors regulated by CRF are mediated through CRF activation of the transcription factor CREB. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the signaling pathway by which CRF activates CREB in striatal neurons. Here we describe a novel neuronal signaling pathway whereby CRF leads to a rapid Gβγ- and MEK-dependent increase in CREB phosphorylation. These data are the first descriptions of CRF leading to activation of a Gβγ-dependent signaling pathway in neurons, as well as the first description of Gβγ activation leading to downstream CREB phosphorylation in any cellular system. Additionally, these data provide additional insight into the mechanisms by which CRF can regulate neuronal function.|
|Christopher M Stern; Jessie I Luoma; John Meitzen; Paul G Mermelstein|
Related Documents :
|2349543 - Variable effect of unilateral or bilateral ovariectomy performed in young or adult anim...
21210663 - Functionalized graphene oxide as a nanocarrier in a multienzyme labeling amplification ...
12417753 - Suppression of bone resorption by madindoline a, a novel nonpeptide antagonist to gp130.
|Type: Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Date: 2011-03-23|
|Title: PloS one Volume: 6 ISSN: 1932-6203 ISO Abbreviation: PLoS ONE Publication Date: 2011|
|Created Date: 2011-03-30 Completed Date: 2011-07-05 Revised Date: 2013-06-30|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 101285081 Medline TA: PLoS One Country: United States|
|Languages: eng Pagination: e18114 Citation Subset: IM|
|Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America.|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Calcium / metabolism
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology*
Cyclic AMP / metabolism
Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / metabolism*
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / metabolism
GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits / metabolism*
GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits / metabolism*
MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects
Neostriatum / cytology*
Neurons / drug effects, enzymology, metabolism*
Phosphorylation / drug effects
Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism
Signal Transduction / drug effects*
|DA07234/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; NS41302/NS/NINDS NIH HHS|
|0/CRF receptor type 1; 0/Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0/GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits; 0/GTP-Binding Protein gamma Subunits; 0/Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 60-92-4/Cyclic AMP; 7440-70-2/Calcium; 9015-71-8/Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 188.8.131.52/Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 184.108.40.206/GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs; EC 220.127.116.11/Adenylate Cyclase|
Journal ID (nlm-ta): PLoS One
Journal ID (publisher-id): plos
Journal ID (pmc): plosone
Publisher: Public Library of Science, San Francisco, USA
Stern et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Received Day: 14 Month: 9 Year: 2010
Accepted Day: 25 Month: 2 Year: 2011
collection publication date: Year: 2011
Electronic publication date: Day: 23 Month: 3 Year: 2011
Volume: 6 Issue: 3
E-location ID: e18114
PubMed Id: 21448293
Publisher Id: PONE-D-10-02118
|Corticotropin Releasing Factor-Induced CREB Activation in Striatal Neurons Occurs via a Novel Gβγ Signaling Pathway Alternate Title:Novel CRF Signaling Pathway in Striatal Neurons|
|Christopher M. Stern12|
|Jessie I. Luoma12|
|Paul G. Mermelstein12*|
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
2Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
|University of California, Berkeley, United States of America
|Correspondence: * E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Contributed by footnote: Conceived and designed the experiments: CMS PGM. Performed the experiments: CMS JIL JM. Analyzed the data: CMS JIL JM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PGM. Wrote the paper: CMS PGM. Created Grk2i plasmid: JIL.
Stress is any actual or perceived disturbance of an organism's environment. An acute stress response, which includes the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), is often necessary for the preservation of organismal integrity during brief anxiety situations. CRF binding to its cognate G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), CRF receptor 1 (CRFR1) and 2 (CRFR2), mediates the influence of CRF on brain cells. However, in addition to their beneficial role in an acute stress response, both stress and CRF have been implicated in pathological disease states, including drug addiction.
Several lines of evidence suggest that stress, and CRF in particular, influence addiction and addictive behaviors. Drugs of abuse have been shown to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis , initiating the stress response. Human individuals with a history of chronic stress are more likely to become addicts, and previously abstinent addicts are more likely to relapse following exposure to an acute stressor –. A stress event both increases drug-seeking behavior as well as facilitates conditioned-place preference to drugs of abuse in animal models of addiction –. Furthermore, stress and CRF potentiate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse .
Recent findings suggest that CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) underlies at least some of these effects of stress on addictive behaviors . As CREB signaling in NAc is critical for the rewarding actions of drugs of abuse –, CRF activation of CREB represents a putative molecular mechanism by which stress could manipulate the neural circuitry underlying drug addiction.
Not surprisingly, the effects of CRF on NAc functioning are not limited to actions related to drug abuse, but also affect the rewarding actions of more physiological stimuli. For example, CRF acting in NAc plays an essential role in prairie-vole pair bonding , as well as enhances the incentive salience of a sucrose reward . And while research thus far has focused on the NAc, CRF neurotransmission is also an essential component to connectivity in the dorsal striatum –.
Although the influence of CRF on striatal functioning has been established, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Given the known relevance for CRF activation of CREB, we characterized the intracellular signaling pathway by which this occurs. While CRFRs are classically thought of as Gαs-coupled GPCRs that exert their effects via activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) and subsequent increases in the second messenger cAMP , , these receptors have since been shown to couple to multiple G-protein signaling cascades in neurons . Through use of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we report a novel signaling pathway whereby CRF leads to a rapid Gβγ-dependent increase in CREB phosphorylation: an effect mediated by MAPK signaling. In addition to illuminating the pathways by which CRF affects striatal neurons, this is the first example of CRF leading to downstream Gβγ-dependent signaling, as well as the first example of Gβγ activation leading to CREB phosphorylation.
Stress-induced activation of CREB in the striatum requires CRFR1 activation . Thus, we attempted to determine whether CRF can lead to CREB phosphorylation (pCREB) in cultured striatal neurons from 1- to 2-day old rat pups, and if so, through which molecular pathway(s). Indeed, a 15-min application of CRF (40 nM) significantly increased CREB phosphorylation relative to vehicle-stimulated control neurons (Figure 1), but had no effect on total CREB staining (Figure S1). When measuring pCREB fluorescence, CRF produced an observable shift in the population response of striatal neurons (Figure 1C). Specifically, plotting the pCREB data as a cumulative histogram revealed that, CRF produced a large shift in pCREB fluorescence intensity in approximately 80% of the striatal neurons (Figure 1C). Furthermore, CRF increased CREB phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 = 0.3 nM (Figure 1D), consistent with a CRFR-mediated event (binding affinity of CRF for CRFR1 ∼ 5–10 nM ). CRF-induced increases in pCREB occurred in a rapid and time-dependent manner (τ∼3.5 minutes), with extended exposure (1 hr) producing apparent desensitization (Figure 1E).
The striatum is composed of two major sub-regions, the dorsal striatum (i.e. caudate/putamen) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). To determine whether CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation is restricted to neurons from one of these two anatomical regions, we created dorsal striatum “enriched” and NAc “enriched” cultures. Both cultures displayed similarly robust increases in CREB phosphorylation upon CRF application (data not shown), suggesting that there are no overt differences in CRF-responsiveness between these two brain regions. Thus, we performed our remaining experiments in whole striatal cultures.
The striatum expresses both CRFRs, although CRFR1 to a greater extent than CRFR2 –. We confirmed expression of both receptors in our cultured neuronal system using real-time PCR (data not shown). To determine whether CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation occurs via activation of these classic CRFRs, we pre-incubated our striatal neurons with the non-specific CRFR peptide antagonist astressin (50 nM). Indicative of a CRFR-mediated event, this treatment completely abolished CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 2A). Next, we sought to determine which receptor mediates CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation. Pre-incubation with the specific CRFR1 antagonist CP154526 (100 nM) eliminated CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 2B). In addition, a 15 min application of the CRFR1-specific agonist stressin-1 (STR; 70 nM) mimicked the effect of CRF, and this effect was also blocked with CP154526 (Figure 2C). To determine any putative role of CRFR2 in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation, we utilized two CRFR2-preferring peptide antagonists. Both antisauvagine-30 (100 nM; Figure 2D) and K41498 (10 nM) (not shown) failed to block CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation. Together, these data strongly demonstrate that CRF induced CREB phosphorylation in striatal neurons is mediated exclusively through CRFR1, with CRFR2 playing no discernable role.
CRFR1 is primarily thought of as a GPCR that signals through Gαs to produce subsequent increases in cAMP. Hence, we decided first to test the hypothesis that CRF activation of CRFR1 leads to an AC/cAMP/PKA-dependent increase in CREB phosphorylation. To assay for the involvement of this pathway, we began with inhibition of PKA. A PKA-specific concentration ,  of the protein kinase inhibitor H-89 (2 µM) failed to block CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 3A). Importantly, this concentration of H89 attenuated CREB phosphorylation stimulated by the AC agonist forskolin (FSK; 25 µM), which signals to CREB through multiple cAMP-responsive proteins including PKA (Figure 3A). Given this unexpected result, we attempted to block CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation with three additional PKA antagonists: the cell permeable peptide PKA inhibitor PKI, 14–22 amide (1 µM), KT5720 (1 µM), and cAMPS-Rp, triethylammonium salt (10 µM). All three compounds also failed to eliminate CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (data not shown). Together, these data demonstrate that PKA is not involved in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation in striatal neurons.
We next determined whether CRF was in fact eliciting increases in cAMP under conditions in which CRF was producing CREB phosphorylation. Hence, we quantified cAMP concentrations following the CRF stimulation paradigm used to elicit increases in CREB phosphorylation. To prevent potential loss of the cAMP signal during the agonist stimulations, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (75 µM) was included both prior to and during stimulation. Exposure of striatal cultures to CRF (40 nM) for durations that elicited CREB phosphorylation failed to induce any measurable increase in cAMP concentration (Figure 3B). In fact, stimulation of striatal cultures for 15 min with various concentrations of CRF up to and including 400 nM (Figure 3C) failed to induce a significant accumulation of cAMP. As a positive control for our assay , a 15 min application of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO; 10 µM) resulted in a significant increase in cAMP (Figure 3B).
To directly test whether cAMP signaling played a role in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation, we treated striatal cultures with the AC antagonist SQ22536 (90 µM). While SQ22536 completely blocked ISO-induced cAMP formation (Figure 3D), it failed to affect CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 3E). Together, these data demonstrate that rapid CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation in striatal neurons operates independently of AC, cAMP, and PKA signaling.
Independent of PKA, several downstream kinase pathways have been shown to regulate CREB phosphorylation , . One such kinase is CaMKIV. However, blocking CaMK activation with KN-93 (2 µM) had no effect on CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 4A), although this concentration of KN-93 blocks depolarization-induced CREB phosphorylation .
MAPK signaling is another pathway that has been shown capable of CREB activation in a variety of neuronal preparations. In contrast to previous experiments, the MEK (MAPK kinase) inhibitor U0126 (10 µM) blocked CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 4B). A second MEK antagonist, PD98059 (25 µM), yielded a similar result (data not shown). MAPK-dependent CREB phosphorylation is often calcium dependent, following calcium entry through L-type calcium channels, or release of calcium from intracellular stores. However, CRF-mediated CREB phosphorylation was not affected by either the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine (5 µM; Figure 4C) or by chelating intracellular calcium through pre-incubation with BAPTA-AM (Figure 4D). Removing extracellular calcium during CRF stimulation also had no effect on CRF-mediated CREB phosphorylation (data not shown). Thus, CRF activation of MAPK signaling appears to be calcium independent.
We next decided to test the involvement of several upstream signalers that could lead to downstream MAPK activation, including Akt, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Ras, Raf, ROCK, and PI3K. We utilized pharmacological blockers for each of these molecules to test for any contribution in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation. Remarkably, inhibitors of Akt (10-DEBC; 5 µM), RTKs (K252A; 100 nM), Ras (XRP44X; 2 µM), Raf (GW5074; 1 µM) ROCK (H-1152; 500 nM), and PI3K (wortmannin; 500 nM) all failed to affect CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (data not shown). Unable to identify an intermediary signaling molecule upstream of MEK but downstream of CRFR1, we decided to test for the involvement of different G-protein subunits in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation.
To test for a Gβγ-dependent mechanism in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation, we utilized the Gβγ-specific inhibitor gallein (75 µM) . In support of a role for Gβγ, CRF failed to induce CREB phosphorylation in the presence of this drug (Figure 5A). To ensure that the effect of gallein was specific to CRF and not dampening all G-protein signaling, we stimulated our neurons with ISO (10 µM) in the presence of gallein. Since ISO leads to CREB phosphorylation via a Gαs pathway in striatal neurons , gallein should not affect ISO-dependent CREB phosphorylation. Indeed, this was in fact the case (Figure 5B). To verify our initial results, we blocked CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation with a second Gβγ-specific inhibitor, M119 (5 µM; Figure 5C). Again M119 had no effect on ISO-induced CREB phosphorylation (data not shown; also see ).
To complement these pharmacological data, we utilized a genetic approach to further characterize the involvement of Gβγ in CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation. Neurons were transfected with either a construct expressing mCherry or co-transfected with the mCherry construct plus a construct expressing the peptide motif of G-protein regulated kinase that scavenges Gβγ (Grk2i), which has previously been shown to specifically block downstream Gβγ signaling . Neurons that were transfected with mCherry alone demonstrated robust CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation. However, neurons that were transfected with Grk2i failed to show CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 5D). Together, these pharmacological and genetic data support the hypothesis that CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation is mediated via a Gβγ-dependent signaling mechanism.
To identify the Gα subunit to which CRFR1 and Gβγ couple in this paradigm, we utilized toxins that specifically target functional classes of Gα. Since functional Gβγ subunits in neurons are classically thought to associate with Gαi/o, we first utilized pertussis toxin (PTX) to specifically inhibit these Gα subunits. PTX prevents the exchange of GDP (inactive state) for GTP (active state), thus hindering the G-protein trimer (Gαβγ) from dissociating from the GPCR, and initiating downstream signaling. Overnight (18 hr) pretreatment of striatal neurons with PTX (0.5 µng/µL) did not alter CRF-mediated CREB phosphorylation (Figure 6A).
Next, we targeted the Gαs family, which includes Gαs and Gαolf in the striatum  (hereafter termed Gαs), with cholera toxin (CTX). CTX blocks inactivation of Gαs by preventing the hydrolysis of GTP (active state) to GDP (inactive state). A short term (2 hr) pre-treatment with CTX induced a transient increase in pCREB on its own (NS: 397.7±93.5; CTX: 2809.7±104.5), confirming that Gαs can signal to CREB in this paradigm. However, to test the effect of disrupting Gαs signaling on CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation, we used long-term CTX treatment, which allows the pCREB signal to reset, as well as prevents Gαs from re-associating with either the Gβγ subunits or the GPCR, precluding agonist-induced reactivation of this signaling pathway. Indeed, overnight pretreatment with CTX resulted in a complete block of CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation (Figure 6B). Importantly, MAPK-mediated CREB phosphorylation following a 60 mM K+ depolarization  was unaffected by this treatment (Figure 6B), indicating signaling downstream of CRFR1 was still intact.
Since AC is the primary downstream effector of Gαs, and since CRFR1 couples to Gαs in striatal neurons (Figure 6), we wondered why we failed to observe CRF-induced cAMP accumulation (Figure 3). We hypothesized that CRFR1 is in fact organized into discrete membrane lipid microdomains , which (1) facilitate Gβγ activation of downstream MAPK signaling and (2) prevents Gαs from accessing/stimulating AC. Therefore, we hypothesized that disrupting lipid microdomains would allow Gαs to activate AC following CRF stimulation. To test this hypothesis we pre-incubated our striatal neurons with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD; 10 mM), commonly used to disrupt lipid microdomains , . We found that unlike control conditions, 4 µM CRF induced a significant increase in cAMP formation in the presence of MβCD (Figure 6C), although notably, not to the levels seen with isoproterenol (see discussion). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that CRF is liberating Gαs subunits in order to mediate Gβγ-mediated CREB phosphorylation.
CRF signaling in neurons was initially characterized as being mediated via the Gαs-coupled CRFR1, and subsequent downstream activation of AC, cAMP and PKA. However, given the recent evidence for the promiscuity of CRF coupling to intracellular signaling pathways, and the profound influence of CRF on NAc processes via CREB, our experiments were designed to determine the specific signaling pathway by which CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation in striatal neurons. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we report a novel neuronal signaling pathway whereby CRF binds to a Gαs-coupled CRFR1, leading to a Gβγ- and MAPK-dependent increase in CREB phosphorylation. Notably, these data are consistent with previous findings showing that stress-facilitation of drug reward depends on CRFR1 and CREB activation in NAc , as well as the finding that CRFR1 is the predominant CRF receptor expressed within this brain region –.
These data demonstrating CRF signaling through a non-canonical pathway are consistent with numerous reports of CRFRs coupling to diverse intracellular signaling pathways across distinct neuronal populations. CRF has been shown to activate CREB in cerebellar and hippocampal neurons , as well as MAPKs in several brain regions . Separate from CREB/MAPK signaling, CRF also affects the activity of various other kinases, second messengers, ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors –. This diversity in cellular effects is not surprising when one considers the ability of CRF to influence a variety of natural and pathological behaviors , –. However, this report is unique among papers describing CRF signaling in neurons in that it describes a novel upstream signaling activator at the level of the G-protein subunit (Gβγ).
Although this is the first report demonstrating that Gβγ leads to CREB activation, and that CRF and CRFR1 signal via Gβγ in neurons, there have been reports of CRF acting through Gβγ-dependent mechanisms in cell lines expressing recombinant protein. These include findings that CRF effects on T-type calcium channels  and intracellular calcium signaling  depend on Gβγ function, as well as a study that found that Gβγ is important for CRFR desensitization . There is also a precedent for activation of Gβγ leading to downstream MAPK activation in non-neuronal cell lines –. One group has shown indirect evidence for Gβγ mediated CREB activation in cerebellar granule neurons  by demonstrating (1) that Gβγ subunits mediate GABAB receptor-induced ERK activation, and (2) that GABAB-mediated CREB phosphorylation is sensitive to MEK/ERK inhibition. Importantly, the authors did not demonstrate in their pCREB assay that GABAB-induced CREB phosphorylation is sensitive to Gβγ inhibition. Hence, our approach is unique in that it is the first report using a direct assay of CREB phosphorylation to demonstrate that agonist-induced increases in pCREB are sensitive to inhibition of Gβγ signaling. Given the diversity of Gβγ signaling ,  and the plethora of CRF effects in numerous brain regions and peripheral tissues , future studies can test for a role of Gβγ signaling in CRF function throughout the brain and other tissue.
The mechanism by which Gβγ leads to MAPK signaling in striatal neurons remains elusive , . One hypothesis is that an intermediate signaling moiety couples Gβγ to MEK (Figure 7). We assayed for the involvement of signaling molecules that have previously been shown to lead to downstream MAPK/CREB activation, are known to be activated by Gβγ, or both. Pharmacological inhibitors/blockers of L-type calcium channels, CaMK, AKT/PKB, RTKs, ROCK, Ras, Raf, and PI3K all failed to block CRF-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, we ruled out any contribution of calcium to CRF induced CREB phosphorylation in these neurons.
Alternatively, Gβγ could physically interact with and activate MEK to initiate MAPK signaling. Gβγ has been shown to interact with and activate a variety of downstream signaling molecules, including AC and ion channels . However, MEK/MAPK are not among those known be physically regulated by Gβγ activation. Interestingly, Gβγ has been shown to traffic to cytoplasmic sites distinct from the plasma membrane, including the Golgi complex and the endoplasmic reticulum , . It is unknown whether receptor-mediated activation of Gβγ subunits can transduce cytoplasmic signaling via translocation into the cytoplasm. However, the hypothesis that Gβγ activated at the membrane can translocate to the cytoplasm to lead to MEK activation cannot be ruled out. Although beyond the scope of this study, future investigations in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells will be needed to determine the exact mechanism by which Gβγ leads to downstream MEK/MAPK activation.
Independent of the mechanism by which Gβγ activates downstream signaling in this paradigm, we hypothesize that the Gβγ subunits released from CRFR1 in response to ligand binding are unique in their ability to elicit downstream CREB phosphorylation, insofar as dissociation of Gβγ from any GPCR is insufficient for this effect. For instance, ISO-mediated activation of β-adrenergic receptors does not result in Gβγ-mediated CREB phosphorylation (Figure 5B). One hypothesis is that CRFR1-coupled Gβγ subunits have a unique molecular property (i.e. post-translational modification) that facilitates activation of downstream signaling pathways. However, our data with the cholesterol chelator MβCD (Figure 6C) suggest an alternative hypothesis whereby the sub-cellular localization of CRFR1 in discrete lipid microdomains allows its dissociated Gβγ subunits privileged access to the downstream signaling machinery necessary for CREB phosphorylation, while preventing CRFR1-associated Gαs from accessing AC. Indeed, an emerging theme in neuronal intracellular signaling is the hypothesis that both membrane-associated and intracellular signaling proteins are organized into discrete structural and functional microdomains that facilitate efficacious intracellular signaling . There is precedent for the organizational influence of scaffolding proteins and microdomains in neuronal ion channel and GPCR-mediated CREB phosphorylation. For example, the privileged ability of L-type calcium channels to mediate downstream CREB phosphorylation, at the exclusion of other calcium influx mechanisms, is due to the specific sub-cellular localization of these L-channels . Our lab has further shown that caveolin proteins (CAVs) are necessary for the functional isolation of distinct GPCR signaling pathways in both hippocampal and striatal neurons , , . Future experiments will test the hypothesis that functional microdomains and scaffolding proteins, such as CAVs, mediate signaling specificity in this paradigm.
The interaction between stress and drug addiction is well established. Stress both pre-disposes individuals to drug-addiction, as well as triggers relapse in previously abstinent addicts –. Animal models of stress and drug addiction mirror these results from clinical populations. Stress enhances locomotor responses to drugs of abuse, and enhances acquisition of self-administration . Stress has also been shown to re-activate extinguished CPP for cocaine .
CRF is the molecular mediator of many of these effects of stress on drug taking behavior . Acute administration of drugs of abuse activates both hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic CRF, while CRF administration mimics the effects of stress on drug taking behaviors in animal models. Since the NAc is thought to be the site of many of the neuro-plastic changes that underlie drug addiction, and since CRF has been shown to influence NAc-dependent behaviors and neurons , , , , we hypothesize that CRF action in NAc neurons underlies some of the effects of stress on addictive behaviors. It must be noted that NAc is not the sole site of CRF influence on addiction. In the context of addictive processes, CRF has been shown to influence several regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system including the VTA and amygdala .
Here we show that CRF can, in fact, directly influence NAc neurons by activating CREB, a transcription factor that is important for the responses to stress , as well as drug reward . Our data are consistent with a report showing that stress-facilitation of drug reward depends on CRFR1 and CREB . It has been known for quite some time that many of the plastic changes in NAc neurons required for drug addiction are dependent on transcription of genes and synthesis of new proteins, and that the transcription factor CREB plays a key role .
This work, which identifies a novel mechanism of CRF signal initiation at the level of the Gβγ subunit in striatal neurons, adds to a growing literature describing the diverse intracellular signaling pathways that can be activated by CRF. However, it remains to be determined whether CRF-induced Gβγ signaling is unique to the striatum, or whether it represents an essential mechanism of CRF signaling across diverse brain regions. In terms of CRF action in the striatum, our working hypothesis is that stress-induced release of CRF into NAc could lead to CREB activation via the pathway identified here, thus “priming” these neurons for CRE-dependent transcription following a robust drug-induced stimulus. Consequently, CRF may shift the transcriptional balance towards the expression of genes that are required for the plastic changes that characterize addiction, thereby facilitating addictive behaviors. Future work will be aimed at determining the extent by which CRF activation of this Gβγ pathway underlies the physiological and behavioral effects of CRF in vivo.
CRF was first described as the neuropeptide that mediated the HPA response to stress. Since then, CRF has been shown to modulate a wide variety of brain regions outside of the traditional HPA axis, including the NAc. Here we report a novel molecular signaling pathway in striatal neurons in which CRF leads to a Gβγ- and MAPK-dependent increase in CREB phosphorylation. This pathway not only sheds light on CRF signaling by characterizing a novel, neuronal CRF initiated signaling pathway, but also reveals novel potential targets for altering the effects of CRF on a variety of behaviors.
Striatal neurons were cultured from 1- to 2-d-old rat pups as previously described , , using a protocol approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Minnesota. Chemicals and drugs were obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, MO) or Tocris (Ellisville, MO) unless otherwise noted. Following decapitation, the striatum was isolated in cold HBSS containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS; HyClone; Logan, UT), 4.2 mM NaHCO3, and 1 mM HEPES, pH 7.35 at 300 mOsm. Tissue was washed before a 5 min digestion in trypsin solution (type XI; 10 mg/mL) containing 137 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 7 mM Na2HPO4, 25 mM HEPES, and 1500 U of DNase at pH 7.2 and 300 mOsm. For dorsal striatum and central striatum enriched cultures, a coronal section was made at the level of the striatum. The dorsal and ventral portions were identified using the anterior commissure, and then transected using a tungsten needle. Following additional washes, the tissue was dissociated, and the cell suspension was pelleted twice before being plated (6×104 cells per well) on Matrigel (BD Biosciences; San Jose, CA)-treated 10 mm coverslips. Cells were incubated at RT for 15 min. One mL of MEM (Invitrogen; Carlsbad, CA) containing 28 mM glucose, 2.4 mM NaHCO3, 0.0013 mM transferring (Calbiochem; La Jolla, CA), 2 mM glutamine, 0.0042 mM insulin, 1% B-27 Supplement (Invitrogen), and 10% FBS was added to each well. Forty-eight hrs later, cells received 1 mL of identical media containing 4 µM cytosine 1-B-D-arabinofuranoside (to inhibit glial mitosis) and 5% FBS. To limit our analysis to GABAergic medium spiny neurons, we excluded large cholinergic interneurons from our analysis based on size.
Also see Table S1. Drugs were obtained from Tocris unless noted. Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 µM), D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 25 µM), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF; 40 nM), astressin (100 nM), CP154526 (100 nM), K41498 (10 nM), antisauvagine-30 (100 nM); stressin-1 (STR; 70 nM), H89 (2 µM), forskolin (12.5 µM), PKI, 14–22 amide myristoylated (1 µM), KT5720 (1 µM), cAMPS-Rp, triethylammonium salt (10 µM), SQ22536 (90 µM), isoproterenol (10 µM), IBMX (75 µM), KN-93 (2 µM), nifedipine (5 µM), U0126 (10 µM), PD98059 (25 µM), K252a (100 nM), 10-DEBC (5 µM), H-1152 (500 nM), GW-5074 (1 µM), Gallein (75 µM), pertussis toxin (PTX; 500 ng/mL), cholera toxin (CTX; 500 ng/mL; Sigma), M119 (5 µM; gift from Dr. Kirill Martemyanov), BAPTA-AM (5 µM; Molecular Probes; Eugene, OR), methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD; 10 mM; Sigma).
Protocols followed are those described previously, using a well-characterized commercially available monoclonal antibody directed against the Ser133 phosphorylated version of CREB (see below) , , –. Briefly, cultured striatal neurons (8–10 d.i.v.) were incubated in a Tyrode's solution containing TTX (1 µM) and AP-5 (25 µM) at room temperature for 1.5 hr. Unless noted otherwise, cell stimulations were performed as follows: vehicle (15 min); agonist stimulations were 15 min, antagonist exposure was 30 min prior to agonist stimulation, except PTX and CTX (18 hr pre-treatment), and concurrently with agonist stimulation. Cells were then fixed for 10 min using ice-cold 4% paraformaldehyde (Electron Microscopy Sciences; Ft. Washington, PA) in PBS containing 4 mM EGTA. Following wash, cells were permeabalized in 0.1% Triton X-100 (VWR Scientific; West Chester, PA) for 5 min. Following an additional wash, cells were incubated at 37°C in block solution (1% IgG-Free BSA and 2% Goat Serum (Jackson ImmunoResearch; West Grove, PA) in PBS) for 30 min. Primary antibody incubation consisted of a 1 hr incubation at 37°C in block solution containing a monoclonal antibody directed against the Ser-133 phosphorylated form of CREB (pCREB 10E9, 1∶1000; Upstate Biotechnology, Lake Placid, NY) and to identify individual cell morphology, a polyclonal antibody targeting microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2, 1∶1000; Upstate). For CREB staining (Figure S1), a rabbit monoclonal antibody directed against total CREB (CREB 48H2, 1∶1000; Cell Signaling, Boston, MA) and a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against α-tubulin (236–10501; Invitrogen) were used. Cells were then washed before being incubated in block solution containing FITC- and CY5-conjugated secondary antibodies (1∶200; Jackson ImmunoResearch). Following a final wash, cells were mounted using FluorSave (Calbiochem). Nuclear fluorescent intensities for pCREB or CREB (approximately 25 cells per group) were acquired using a Leica DM5500Q confocal system. Data were quantified with Leica LAS AF (version 1.9.0; Leica).
The confocal excitation and detection settings for each experiment were determined using coverslips stimulated for 5 min with 60 mM potassium (60 K) to establish a “ceiling” for pCREB intensity. A baseline was determined via the vehicle (NS) group, so that each assay has an internal control. Inter-coverslip variability was accounted for by subjecting 2–3 coverslips to each treatment. Data were acquired in random order by a blind observer. Neurons were readily discriminated from glia via size and morphology (see Figure 1 and Figure S1) and selected randomly using α-tubulin or MAP2 fluorescence, allowing the experimenter to remain blind to the CREB or pCREB signal. Images were captured through the approximate midline of each neuron. To analyze pCREB fluorescence intensity, the α-tubulin or MAP2 staining was used to draw a region of interested (ROI) of interest outlining the nucleus of each neuron. The ROI was then transferred to the CREB or pCREB image, and average fluorescence intensities within the nucleus were noted. All images were background subtracted from an area devoid of neuronal α-tubulin or MAP2 staining, with each experiment being performed at least three times to verify results.
We measured cAMP concentrations in cultured striatal neurons (8–10 d.i.v.) using a Parameter cAMP kit (R&D Systems; Minneapolis, MN) with a mean minimum detectable dose of 1.50 pmol/mL (manufacturer protocol). In all cAMP assays, striatal neurons were incubated in a Tyrode's solution containing TTX (1 µM) and APV (25 µM) for 1.5 hours, and then switched into an identical solution containing IBMX (75 µM). When indicated, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD; 10 mM) was included with IBMX. For MβCD experiments, 4 µM CRF was used for 15 min (Figure 6C). Stimulations were performed in the presence of the above compounds for the time-points indicated in “Results” with isoproterenol (10 µM) or CRF. Immediately following stimulation, neurons were washed with ice-cold PBS and then lysed with 215 µL ice-cold lysis buffer. Samples were stored overnight at -20°C before being processed according to manufacturer instructions. A Bio-Rad microplate reader (model 680) was used to measure concentrations of cAMP. Lysate from individual coverslips were placed in separate wells (n∼4 wells/group). Each experiment was performed in triplicate to verify results.
Cultured striatal neurons were transfected at 7–8 d.i.v. with 1 ug/DNA/coversip using a calcium-phosphate method that results in >95% of the transfected cells being neurons .
Experiments were analyzed using ANOVAs and Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison post hoc test, or nonlinear curve fits using Prism 4.03 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA). Statistically different groups are denoted by different alphabetical characters in corresponding bar graphs. P-values <0.05 were considered a priori as significant. Data are presented as mean ± SEM.
CRF does not change total CREB. (A) Immunolabeled confocal images of cultured striatal neurons from 1- to 2-day old rat pups with α-tubulin (green) and total CREB (red). Neurons stimulated with CRF (40 nM) for 15 min showed no change in total CREB staining relative to vehicle stimulated control neurons (NS; Scale Bar = 20 µm). (B) Quantification of immunostaining revealed no effect of CRF on total CREB staining (P = 0.67, Student's two-tailed T-test).
Click here for additional data file (pone.0018114.s001.png)
Click here for additional data file (pone.0018114.s002.xlsx)
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Funding: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant NS41302 to PGM. CMS was supported by the training grant DA07234. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
We thank Rachel Penrod for expert assistance in dissecting dorsal and ventral striatum, Dr. Brooke Kelley for scientific input, and Dr. Robert Meisel for suggestions on previous versions of manuscript.
|1.||Sarnyai Z. Year: 1998Neurobiology of stress and cocaine addiction. Studies on corticotropin-releasing factor in rats, monkeys, and humans.Ann N Y Acad Sci8513713879668628|
|2.||Brown SA,Vik PW,Patterson TL,Grant I,Schuckit MA. Year: 1995Stress, vulnerability and adult alcohol relapse.J Stud Alcohol565385457475034|
|3.||Cleck JN,Blendy JA. Year: 2008Making a bad thing worse: adverse effects of stress on drug addiction.J Clin Invest11845446118246196|
|4.||Shaham Y,Erb S,Stewart J. Year: 2000Stress-induced relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking in rats: a review.Brain Res Brain Res Rev33133310967352|
|5.||Goeders NE,Guerin GF. Year: 1994Non-contingent electric footshock facilitates the acquisition of intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats.Psychopharmacology (Berl)11463707846208|
|6.||Haney M,Maccari S,Le Moal M,Simon H,Piazza PV. Year: 1995Social stress increases the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in male and female rats.Brain Res69846528581502|
|7.||Miczek KA,Mutschler NH. Year: 1996Activational effects of social stress on IV cocaine self-administration in rats.Psychopharmacology (Berl)1282562648972545|
|8.||Ramsey NF,Van Ree JM. Year: 1993Emotional but not physical stress enhances intravenous cocaine self-administration in drug-naive rats.Brain Res6082162228495356|
|9.||Shaham Y,Stewart J. Year: 1994Exposure to mild stress enhances the reinforcing efficacy of intravenous heroin self-administration in rats.Psychopharmacology (Berl)1145235277855213|
|10.||Piazza PV,Le Moal M. Year: 1998The role of stress in drug self-administration.Trends Pharmacol Sci1967749550944|
|11.||Kreibich AS,Briand L,Cleck JN,Ecke L,Rice KC,et al. Year: 2009Stress-induced potentiation of cocaine reward: a role for CRF R1 and CREB.Neuropsychopharmacology342609261719675537|
|12.||Carlezon WA Jr,Thome J,Olson VG,Lane-Ladd SB,Brodkin ES,et al. Year: 1998Regulation of cocaine reward by CREB.Science282227222759856954|
|13.||Nestler EJ. Year: 2004Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.Neuropharmacology47Suppl 1243215464123|
|14.||Walters CL,Cleck JN,Kuo YC,Blendy JA. Year: 2005Mu-opioid receptor and CREB activation are required for nicotine reward.Neuron4693394315953421|
|15.||Dinieri JA,Nemeth CL,Parsegian A,Carle T,Gurevich VV,et al. Year: 2009Altered sensitivity to rewarding and aversive drugs in mice with inducible disruption of cAMP response element-binding protein function within the nucleus accumbens.J Neurosci291855185919211892|
|16.||Brunzell DH,Mineur YS,Neve RL,Picciotto MR. Year: 2009Nucleus accumbens CREB activity is necessary for nicotine conditioned place preference.Neuropsychopharmacology341993200119212318|
|17.||Lim MM,Liu Y,Ryabinin AE,Bai Y,Wang Z,et al. Year: 2007CRF receptors in the nucleus accumbens modulate partner preference in prairie voles.Horm Behav5150851517320879|
|18.||Pecina S,Schulkin J,Berridge KC. Year: 2006Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?BMC Biol4816613600|
|19.||Behan DP,Khongsaly O,Owens MJ,Chung HD,Nemeroff CB,et al. Year: 1997Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP), and CRF/CRF-BP complex in Alzheimer's disease and control postmortem human brain.J Neurochem68205320609109532|
|20.||Merchenthaler I. Year: 1984Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. Extrahypothalamic distribution.Peptides5Suppl 153696384954|
|21.||De Souza EB,Whitehouse PJ,Folstein SE,Price DL,Vale WW. Year: 1987Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is decreased in the basal ganglia in Huntington's disease.Brain Res4373553592893655|
|22.||Guan X,Wang L,Chen CL,Guan Y,Li S. Year: 2010Roles of two subtypes of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor in the corticostriatal long-term potentiation under cocaine withdrawal condition.J Neurochem11579580320807310|
|23.||Chen FM,Bilezikjian LM,Perrin MH,Rivier J,Vale W. Year: 1986Corticotropin releasing factor receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in the rat brain.Brain Res38149573019476|
|24.||Battaglia G,Webster EL,De Souza EB. Year: 1987Characterization of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-mediated adenylate cyclase activity in the rat central nervous system.Synapse15725812843998|
|25.||Hillhouse EW,Grammatopoulos DK. Year: 2006The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the biological activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: implications for physiology and pathophysiology.Endocr Rev2726028616484629|
|26.||Perrin MH,Sutton SW,Cervini LA,Rivier JE,Vale WW. Year: 1999Comparison of an agonist, urocortin, and an antagonist, astressin, as radioligands for characterization of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors.J Pharmacol Exp Ther2887297349918582|
|27.||Chalmers DT,Lovenberg TW,De Souza EB. Year: 1995Localization of novel corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF2) mRNA expression to specific subcortical nuclei in rat brain: comparison with CRF1 receptor mRNA expression.J Neurosci15634063507472399|
|28.||Iredale PA,Alvaro JD,Lee Y,Terwilliger R,Chen YL,et al. Year: 2000Role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 in opiate withdrawal.J Neurochem7419920810617121|
|29.||De Souza EB. Year: 1987Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the rat central nervous system: characterization and regional distribution.J Neurosci7881003027279|
|30.||Primus RJ,Yevich E,Baltazar C,Gallager DW. Year: 1997Autoradiographic localization of CRF1 and CRF2 binding sites in adult rat brain.Neuropsychopharmacology173083169348546|
|31.||Davies SP,Reddy H,Caivano M,Cohen P. Year: 2000Specificity and mechanism of action of some commonly used protein kinase inhibitors.Biochem J3519510510998351|
|32.||Lochner A,Moolman JA. Year: 2006The many faces of H89: a review.Cardiovasc Drug Rev2426127417214602|
|33.||Meitzen J,Luoma JI,Stern CM,Mermelstein PG. Year: 2010beta1-adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons.J Neurochem|
|34.||Lonze BE,Ginty DD. Year: 2002Function and regulation of CREB family transcription factors in the nervous system.Neuron3560562312194863|
|35.||Deisseroth K,Mermelstein PG,Xia H,Tsien RW. Year: 2003Signaling from synapse to nucleus: the logic behind the mechanisms.Curr Opin Neurobiol1335436512850221|
|36.||Wu GY,Deisseroth K,Tsien RW. Year: 2001Activity-dependent CREB phosphorylation: convergence of a fast, sensitive calmodulin kinase pathway and a slow, less sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A982808281311226322|
|37.||Lehmann DM,Seneviratne AM,Smrcka AV. Year: 2008Small molecule disruption of G protein beta gamma subunit signaling inhibits neutrophil chemotaxis and inflammation.Mol Pharmacol7341041818006643|
|38.||Koch WJ,Hawes BE,Inglese J,Luttrell LM,Lefkowitz RJ. Year: 1994Cellular expression of the carboxyl terminus of a G protein-coupled receptor kinase attenuates G beta gamma-mediated signaling.J Biol Chem269619361978119963|
|39.||Hara M,Fukui R,Hieda E,Kuroiwa M,Bateup HS,et al. Year: 2010Role of adrenoceptors in the regulation of dopamine/DARPP-32 signaling in neostriatal neurons.J Neurochem1131046105920236221|
|40.||Stern CM,Mermelstein PG. Year: 2010Caveolin regulation of neuronal intracellular signaling.Cell Mol Life Sci673785379520632068|
|41.||Butchbach ME,Tian G,Guo H,Lin CL. Year: 2004Association of excitatory amino acid transporters, especially EAAT2, with cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains: importance for excitatory amino acid transporter localization and function.J Biol Chem279343883439615187084|
|42.||Li X,Galli T,Leu S,Wade JB,Weinman EJ,et al. Year: 2001Na+-H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is present in lipid rafts in the rabbit ileal brush border: a role for rafts in trafficking and rapid stimulation of NHE3.J Physiol53753755211731584|
|43.||Bayatti N,Zschocke J,Behl C. Year: 2003Brain region-specific neuroprotective action and signaling of corticotropin-releasing hormone in primary neurons.Endocrinology1444051406012933679|
|44.||Refojo D,Echenique C,Muller MB,Reul JM,Deussing JM,et al. Year: 2005Corticotropin-releasing hormone activates ERK1/2 MAPK in specific brain areas.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A1026183618815833812|
|45.||Blank T,Nijholt I,Grammatopoulos DK,Randeva HS,Hillhouse EW,et al. Year: 2003Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors couple to multiple G-proteins to activate diverse intracellular signaling pathways in mouse hippocampus: role in neuronal excitability and associative learning.J Neurosci2370070712533630|
|46.||Sheng H,Zhang Y,Sun J,Gao L,Ma B,et al. Year: 2008Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) depresses n-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via CRH receptor type 1.Endocrinology1491389139818079206|
|47.||Wanat MJ,Hopf FW,Stuber GD,Phillips PE,Bonci A. Year: 2008Corticotropin-releasing factor increases mouse ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron firing through a protein kinase C-dependent enhancement of Ih.J Physiol5862157217018308824|
|48.||Beckstead MJ,Gantz SC,Ford CP,Stenzel-Poore MP,Phillips PE,et al. Year: 2009CRF enhancement of GIRK channel-mediated transmission in dopamine neurons.Neuropsychopharmacology341926193519279570|
|49.||Ungless MA,Singh V,Crowder TL,Yaka R,Ron D,et al. Year: 2003Corticotropin-releasing factor requires CRF binding protein to potentiate NMDA receptors via CRF receptor 2 in dopamine neurons.Neuron3940140712895416|
|50.||Riegel AC,Williams JT. Year: 2008CRF facilitates calcium release from intracellular stores in midbrain dopamine neurons.Neuron5755957018304485|
|51.||Magalhaes AC,Holmes KD,Dale LB,Comps-Agrar L,Lee D,et al. Year: 2010CRF receptor 1 regulates anxiety behavior via sensitization of 5-HT2 receptor signaling.Nat Neurosci1362262920383137|
|52.||Bale TL. Year: 2005Sensitivity to stress: dysregulation of CRF pathways and disease development.Horm Behav4811015919381|
|53.||Sarnyai Z,Shaham Y,Heinrichs SC. Year: 2001The role of corticotropin-releasing factor in drug addiction.Pharmacol Rev5320924311356984|
|54.||Bale TL,Vale WW. Year: 2004CRF and CRF receptors: role in stress responsivity and other behaviors.Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol4452555714744257|
|55.||Tao J,Hildebrand ME,Liao P,Liang MC,Tan G,et al. Year: 2008Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 selectively inhibits CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels.Mol Pharmacol731596160918292205|
|56.||Gutknecht E,Van der Linden I,Van Kolen K,Verhoeven KF,Vauquelin G,et al. Year: 2009Molecular mechanisms of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-induced calcium signaling.Mol Pharmacol7564865719098121|
|57.||Teli T,Markovic D,Levine MA,Hillhouse EW,Grammatopoulos DK. Year: 2005Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1alpha signaling: structural determinants for G protein-coupled receptor kinase-mediated phosphorylation and agonist-mediated desensitization.Mol Endocrinol1947449015498832|
|58.||Lopez-Ilasaca M,Crespo P,Pellici PG,Gutkind JS,Wetzker R. Year: 1997Linkage of G protein-coupled receptors to the MAPK signaling pathway through PI 3-kinase gamma.Science2753943978994038|
|59.||Dupre DJ,Robitaille M,Rebois RV,Hebert TE. Year: 2009The role of Gβγ subunits in the organization, assembly, and function of GPCR signaling complexes.Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol49315618834311|
|60.||Smrcka AV. Year: 2008G protein βγ subunits: central mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling.Cell Mol Life Sci652191221418488142|
|61.||Tu H,Rondard P,Xu C,Bertaso F,Cao F,et al. Year: 2007Dominant role of GABAB2 and Gβγ for GABAB receptor-mediated-ERK1/2/CREB pathway in cerebellar neurons.Cell Signal191996200217582742|
|62.||Akgoz M,Kalyanaraman V,Gautam N. Year: 2006G protein βγ complex translocation from plasma membrane to Golgi complex is influenced by receptor gamma subunit interaction.Cell Signal181758176816517125|
|63.||Saini DK,Kalyanaraman V,Chisari M,Gautam N. Year: 2007A family of G protein βγ subunits translocate reversibly from the plasma membrane to endomembranes on receptor activation.J Biol Chem282240992410817581822|
|64.||Weick JP,Groth RD,Isaksen AL,Mermelstein PG. Year: 2003Interactions with PDZ proteins are required for L-type calcium channels to activate cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent gene expression.J Neurosci233446345612716953|
|65.||Grove-Strawser D,Boulware MI,Mermelstein PG. Year: 2010Membrane estrogen receptors activate the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR5 and mGluR3 to bidirectionally regulate CREB phosphorylation in female rat striatal neurons.Neuroscience1701045105520709161|
|66.||Boulware MI,Kordasiewicz H,Mermelstein PG. Year: 2007Caveolin proteins are essential for distinct effects of membrane estrogen receptors in neurons.J Neurosci279941995017855608|
|67.||Koob GF. Year: 2010The role of CRF and CRF-related peptides in the dark side of addiction.Brain Res131431419912996|
|68.||Holahan MR,Kalin NH,Kelley AE. Year: 1997Microinfusion of corticotropin-releasing factor into the nucleus accumbens shell results in increased behavioral arousal and oral motor activity.Psychopharmacology (Berl)1301891969106918|
|69.||Briand LA,Blendy JA. Year: 2010Molecular and genetic substrates linking stress and addiction.Brain Res131421923419900417|
|70.||Groth RD,Weick JP,Bradley KC,Luoma JI,Aravamudan B,et al. Year: 2008D1 dopamine receptor activation of NFAT-mediated striatal gene expression.Eur J Neurosci27314218184313|
|71.||Boulware MI,Weick JP,Becklund BR,Kuo SP,Groth RD,et al. Year: 2005Estradiol activates group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling, leading to opposing influences on cAMP response element-binding protein.J Neurosci255066507815901789|
|72.||Pearce LR,Alton GR,Richter DT,Kath JC,Lingardo L,et al. Year: 2010Characterization of PF-4708671, a novel and highly specific inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1).Biochem J43124525520704563|
|73.||Perrin MH,Donaldson CJ,Chen R,Lewis KA,Vale WW. Year: 1993Cloning and functional expression of a rat brain corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor.Endocrinology133305830618243338|
|74.||Facci L,Stevens DA,Pangallo M,Franceschini D,Skaper SD,et al. Year: 2003Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and related peptides confer neuroprotection via type 1 CRF receptors.Neuropharmacology4562363612941376|
|75.||Ruhmann A,Bonk I,Lin CR,Rosenfeld MG,Spiess J. Year: 1998Structural requirements for peptidic antagonists of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR): development of CRFR2beta-selective antisauvagine-30.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A9515264152699860957|
|76.||Lawrence AJ,Krstew EV,Dautzenberg FM,Ruhmann A. Year: 2002The highly selective CRF(2) receptor antagonist K41498 binds to presynaptic CRF(2) receptors in rat brain.Br J Pharmacol13689690412110614|
|77.||Glass DB,Lundquist LJ,Katz BM,Walsh DA. Year: 1989Protein kinase inhibitor-(6-22)-amide peptide analogs with standard and nonstandard amino acid substitutions for phenylalanine 10. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.J Biol Chem26414579145842760075|
|78.||Zheng XL,Matsubara S,Diao C,Hollenberg MD,Wong NC. Year: 2000Activation of apolipoprotein AI gene expression by protein kinase A and kinase C through transcription factor, Sp1.J Biol Chem275317473175410829013|
|79.||Farrow B,Rychahou P,Murillo C,O'Connor KL,Iwamura T,et al. Year: 2003Inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth and induction of apoptosis with novel therapies directed against protein kinase A.Surgery13419720512947318|
|80.||Fu Y,Han J,Ishola T,Scerbo M,Adwanikar H,et al. Year: 2008PKA and ERK, but not PKC, in the amygdala contribute to pain-related synaptic plasticity and behavior.Mol Pain42618631385|
|81.||Harris DN,Asaad MM,Phillips MB,Goldenberg HJ,Antonaccio MJ. Year: 1979Inhibition of adenylate cyclase in human blood platelets by 9-substituted adenine derivatives.J Cyclic Nucleotide Res5125134221552|
|82.||Freitag A,Wessler I,Racke K. Year: 1998Phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated 5-hydroxytryptamine release from tracheae of newborn rabbits.Eur J Pharmacol35467719726632|
|83.||Thimmaiah KN,Easton JB,Germain GS,Morton CL,Kamath S,et al. Year: 2005Identification of N10-substituted phenoxazines as potent and specific inhibitors of Akt signaling.J Biol Chem280319243193516009706|
|84.||Groth RD,Mermelstein PG. Year: 2003Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells)-dependent transcription: a role for the transcription factor NFATc4 in neurotrophin-mediated gene expression.J Neurosci238125813412954875|
|85.||Wasylyk C,Zheng H,Castell C,Debussche L,Multon MC,et al. Year: 2008Inhibition of the Ras-Net (Elk-3) pathway by a novel pyrazole that affects microtubules.Cancer Res681275128318316589|
|86.||Tamura M,Nakao H,Yoshizaki H,Shiratsuchi M,Shigyo H,et al. Year: 2005Development of specific Rho-kinase inhibitors and their clinical application.Biochim Biophys Acta175424525216213195|
|87.||Yu JZ,Dave RH,Allen JA,Sarma T,Rasenick MM. Year: 2009Cytosolic Gα acts as an intracellular messenger to increase microtubule dynamics and promote neurite outgrowth.J Biol Chem284104621047219237344|
|88.||Kralisch S,Klein J,Lossner U,Bluher M,Paschke R,et al. Year: 2005Hormonal regulation of the novel adipocytokine visfatin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.J Endocrinol185R1815930160|
Previous Document: Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.
Next Document: The lesser known challenge of climate change: thermal variance and sex-reversal in vertebrates with ...