Document Detail

Corn residue level and manure application timing effects on phosphorus losses in runoff.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16091615     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Growing interest in corn (Zea mays L.) silage utilization on Wisconsin dairy farms may have implications for nutrient losses from agricultural lands. Increasing the silage cutting height will increase residue cover and could reduce off-site migration of sediments and associated constituents compared with conventional silage harvesting. We examined the effects of residue level and manure application timing on phosphorus (P) losses in runoff from no-till corn. Treatments included conventional corn grain (G) and silage (SL; 10- to 15-cm cutting height) and nonconventional, high-cut (60-65 cm) silage (SH) subjected to different manure application regimes: no manure (N) or surface application in fall (F) or spring (S). Simulated rainfall (76 mm h(-1); 1 h) was applied in spring and fall for two years (2002-2003), runoff from 2.0- x 1.5-m plots was collected, and subsamples were analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (TP), and P mass distribution in four particle size classes. Total P and DRP loads were inversely related to percent residue cover, but both TP and DRP concentrations were unaffected by residue level. Manure application increased DRP concentrations in spring runoff by two to five times but did not significantly affect DRP loads, since higher concentrations were offset by lower runoff volumes. Spring manure application reduced TP loads in spring runoff by 77 to 90% compared with plots receiving no manure, with the extent of reductions being greatest at the lower residue levels (<24%). The TP concentration in sediments increased as particle size decreased. Manure application increased the TP concentration of the 0- to 2-microm fraction by 79 to 125%, but elevated the 2- to 10- and 10- to 50-microm fractions to a lesser extent. Recent manure additions were most influential in enriching transported sediments with P. By itself, higher residue cover achieved by high-cutting silage was often insufficient to lower P losses; however, the combination of manure application and higher residue levels significantly reduced P losses from corn fields harvested for silage.
Joseph D Grande; K G Karthikeyan; Paul S Miller; J Mark Powell
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2005-08-09
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of environmental quality     Volume:  34     ISSN:  0047-2425     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Environ. Qual.     Publication Date:    2005 Sep-Oct
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-08-10     Completed Date:  2006-05-31     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330666     Medline TA:  J Environ Qual     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1620-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Biological Systems Engineering Department, 460 Henry Mall, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Linear Models
Manure / analysis*
Particle Size
Phosphorus / analysis*
Soil Pollutants / analysis*
Water Movements*
Zea mays / chemistry*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Manure; 0/Soil; 0/Soil Pollutants; 7723-14-0/Phosphorus

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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