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Copper and Iron Homeostasis in Plants: The Challenges of Oxidative Stress.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23199018     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Significance: Photosynthesis, the process that drives life on earth, relies on transition metal (e.g., Fe and Cu) containing proteins that participate in electron transfer in the chloroplast. However, the light reactions also generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which makes metal use in plants a challenge. Recent Advances: Sophisticated regulatory networks govern Fe and Cu homeostasis in response to metal ion availability according to cellular needs and priorities. Molecular remodeling in response to Fe or Cu limitation leads to its economy to benefit photosynthesis. Fe toxicity is prevented by ferritin, a chloroplastic Fe-storage protein in plants. Recent studies on ferritin function and regulation revealed the interplay between iron homeostasis and the redox balance in the chloroplast. Critical Issues: Although the connections between metal excess and ROS in the chloroplast are established at the molecular level, the mechanistic details and physiological significance remain to be defined. The causality/effect relationship between transition metals, redox signals and responses is difficult to establish. Future Directions: Integrated approaches have led to a comprehensive understanding of Cu homeostasis in plants. However, the biological functions of several major families of Cu proteins remain unclear. The cellular priorities for Fe use under deficiency remain largely to be determined. A number of transcription factors that function to regulate Cu and Fe homeostasis under deficiency have been characterized but we have not identified regulators that mediate responses to excess. Importantly, details of metal sensing mechanisms and cross-talk to ROS-sensing mechanisms are so far poorly documented in plants.
Authors:
Karl Henrique Ravet; Marinus Pilon
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-12-2
Journal Detail:
Title:  Antioxidants & redox signaling     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1557-7716     ISO Abbreviation:  Antioxid. Redox Signal.     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-3     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100888899     Medline TA:  Antioxid Redox Signal     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Colorado State University (CSU), Biology Department, 200, West Lake Street, 1878 campus delivery, Room E445 ANAZO building, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States, 80523-1878, 970-491-5307, 970-491-0649; kravet@lamar.colostate.edu.
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