Document Detail

Contribution of the legs to double-poling performance in elite cross-country skiers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17019309     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: In the classical style of cross-country skiing, the double-poling (DP) technique, which is regarded as an upper-body exercise, is used on the flatter parts of a course. Limited biomechanical and physiological data are available about DP compared with other cross-country skiing techniques. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible role of the lower body during DP. METHODS: Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed two incremental tests using DP roller skiing at 1 degree inclination on a treadmill with or without locking the knee and ankle joints (DPLOCKED and DPFREE). Maximal and peak oxygen uptake (VO2max and VO2peak) during classic diagonal skiing and DP, respectively, were measured. In addition, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and maximal DP velocity (Vmax) were determined. Pole-ground reaction forces and joint angles (elbow, hip, knee, and ankle) were analyzed. RESULTS: The skiers obtained 7.7% higher VO2peak, 9.4% higher Vmax, and 11.7% longer time to exhaustion during DPFREE compared with DPLOCKED (all P < 0.05). There was a higher heart rate and blood lactate concentration in DPLOCKED at submaximal stages (all P < 0.05), with no difference in oxygen consumption. At 85% Vmax, corresponding to approximately 81% VO2peak FREE, the differences in physiological variables were accompanied by a 13.6% higher poling frequency, a 4.9% shorter poling phase, 13.3% shorter recovery phase, and 10.9% lower relative pole force in DPLOCKED (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Movements of the knee and ankle joints are an integrative part in the skillful use of the DP technique, and restriction of the motion in these joints markedly affects both biomechanical and physiological variables, impairing DP performance.
Hans-Christer Holmberg; Stefan Lindinger; Thomas Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Erich Müller
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and science in sports and exercise     Volume:  38     ISSN:  0195-9131     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Publication Date:  2006 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-10-04     Completed Date:  2006-12-08     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005433     Medline TA:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1853-60     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Ankle Joint / physiology
Knee Joint / physiology
Leg / physiology*
Muscle Contraction / physiology*
Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
Oxygen Consumption*
Skiing / physiology*

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