Document Detail

Contrary effects of octopamine receptor ligands on behavioral and neuronal changes in locomotion of lymnaea.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20203249     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis moves along the sides and bottom of an aquarium, but it can also glide upside down on its back below the water's surface. We have termed these two forms of locomotion "standard locomotion" and "upside-down gliding," respectively. Previous studies showed that standard locomotion is produced by both cilia activity on the foot and peristaltic contraction of the foot muscles, whereas upside-down gliding is mainly caused by cilia activity. The pedal A neurons are thought to receive excitatory octopaminergic input, which ultimately results in increased cilia beating. However, the relationship between locomotory speed and the responses of these neurons to octopamine is not known. We thus examined the effects of both an agonist and an antagonist of octopamine receptors on locomotory speed and the firing rate of the pedal A neurons. We also examined, at the electron and light-microscopic levels, whether structural changes occur in cilia following the application of either an agonist or an antagonist of octopamine receptors to the central nervous system (CNS). We found that the application of an octopamine antagonist to the CNS increased the speed of both forms of locomotion, whereas application of octopamine increased only the firing rate of the pedal A neurons. Microscopic examination of the cilia proved that there were no changes in their morphology after application of octopamine ligands. These data suggest that there is an unidentified octopaminergic neuronal network in the CNS whose activation reduces cilia movement and thus locomotory speed.
Yurie Miyamae; Mami Komuro; Aya Murata; Kanako Aono; Kaori Nishikata; Akira Kanazawa; Yutaka Fujito; Takumi Komatsu; Daisuke Ito; Takashi Abe; Masafumi Nagayama; Tsutomu Uchida; Kazutoshi Gohara; Jun Murakami; Ryo Kawai; Dai Hatakeyama; Ken Lukowiak; Etsuro Ito
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Biological bulletin     Volume:  218     ISSN:  1939-8697     ISO Abbreviation:  Biol. Bull.     Publication Date:  2010 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-03-05     Completed Date:  2010-05-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2984727R     Medline TA:  Biol Bull     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  6-14     Citation Subset:  IM    
Hokkaido Sapporo Okadama High School, Higashi-ku, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Cilia / ultrastructure
Locomotion / drug effects*
Lymnaea / drug effects*,  ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Receptors, Biogenic Amine / agonists*,  antagonists & inhibitors*,  drug effects
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Ligands; 0/Receptors, Biogenic Amine; 0/norsynephrine receptor

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