Document Detail

Contraceptive vaccines targeting factors involved in establishment of pregnancy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21481058     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Current methods of contraception lack specificity and are accompanied with serious side effects. A more specific method of contraception is needed. Contraceptive vaccines can provide most, if not all, the desired characteristics of an ideal contraceptive. This article reviews several factors involved in the establishment of pregnancy, focusing on those that are essential for successful implantation. Factors that are both essential and pregnancy-specific can provide potential targets for contraception. Using database search, 76 factors (cytokines/chemokines/growth factors/others) were identified that are involved in various steps of the establishment of pregnancy. Among these factors, three, namely chorionic gonadotropin (CG), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and pre-implantation factor (PIF), are found to be unique and exciting molecules. Human CG is a well-known pregnancy-specific protein that has undergone phase I and phase II clinical trials, in women, as a contraceptive vaccine with encouraging results. LIF and PIF are pregnancy-specific and essential for successful implantation. These molecules are intriguing and may provide viable targets for immunocontraception. A multiepitope vaccine combining factors/antigens involved in various steps of the fertilization cascade and pregnancy establishment may provide a highly immunogenic and efficacious modality for contraception in humans.
Angela R Lemons; Rajesh K Naz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2011-04-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989)     Volume:  66     ISSN:  1600-0897     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.     Publication Date:  2011 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-06-07     Completed Date:  2011-09-20     Revised Date:  2013-06-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8912860     Medline TA:  Am J Reprod Immunol     Country:  Denmark    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  13-25     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Reproductive Immunology and Molecular Biology Laboratories, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506-9186, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Antigens / immunology
Chorionic Gonadotropin / immunology*
Clinical Trials as Topic
Contraception, Immunologic / methods*
Contraceptive Agents / immunology
Cytokines / immunology
Databases, Genetic
Embryo Implantation / drug effects,  immunology*
Epitopes / immunology
Family Planning Services / methods*
Fertilization / drug effects,  immunology*
Leukemia Inhibitory Factor / immunology*
Recombinant Proteins / immunology
Spermatozoa / immunology
Vaccines, Contraceptive / immunology*,  therapeutic use
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antigens; 0/Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0/Contraceptive Agents; 0/Cytokines; 0/Epitopes; 0/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor; 0/Recombinant Proteins; 0/Vaccines, Contraceptive

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