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Contact toxicities of anuran skin alkaloids against the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23340579     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Nearly 500 alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These cutaneous compounds, which are derived from arthropod prey of the frogs, generally are believed to deter predators. We tested the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) for toxicosis following contact with 20 alkaloids (12 structural classes) identified from dendrobatids or other anurans. Individual ants forced to contact the dried residues of 13 compounds exhibited convulsions and/or reduced ambulation. We estimated the cutaneous concentrations of several compounds based on their reported recoveries from skin extracts of free-ranging frogs and our measurements of the skin surface areas of museum specimens. Pumiliotoxin 251D exhibited contact toxicity below its estimated cutaneous concentration in the Ecuadorian frog, Epipedobates anthonyi, an observation consistent with the hypothesized role of this compound in anuran chemical defense. Our results and those of a previous study of mosquitoes indicate that some anuran skin compounds function defensively as contact toxins against arthropods, permeating their exoskeleton.
Paul J Weldon; Yasmin J Cardoza; Robert K Vander Meer; W Clint Hoffmann; John W Daly; Thomas F Spande
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Die Naturwissenschaften     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1432-1904     ISO Abbreviation:  Naturwissenschaften     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0400767     Medline TA:  Naturwissenschaften     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, National Zoological Park, 1500 Remount Road, Front Royal, VA, 22630, USA.
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