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Consumption of pesticide-treated wheat seed by a rural population in Malawi.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23047320     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
An outbreak of typhoid fever in rural Malawi triggered an investigation by the Malawi Ministry of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in July 2009. During the investigation, villagers were directly consuming washed, donated, pesticide-treated wheat seed meant for planting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for pesticide exposure and health risk in the outbreak community. A sample of unwashed (1430 g) and washed (759 g) wheat seed donated for planting, but which would have been directly consumed, was tested for 365 pesticides. Results were compared with each other (percentage change), the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) health guidance values and estimated daily exposures were compared with their Reference dose (RfD). Unwashed and washed seed samples contained, respectively: carboxin, 244 and 57 p.p.m.; pirimiphos methyl, 8.18 and 8.56 p.p.m.; total permethrin, 3.62 and 3.27 p.p.m.; and carbaryl, 0.057 and 0.025 p.p.m.. Percentage change calculations (unwashed to washed) were as follows: carboxin, -76.6%; pirimiphos methyl, +4.6%; total permethrin, -9.7%; and carbaryl -56.1%. Only carboxin and total permethrin concentration among washed seed samples exceeded US EPA health guidance values (285 × and seven times, respectively). Adult estimated exposure scenarios (1 kg seed) exceeded the RfD for carboxin (8 × ) and pirimiphos methyl (12 × ). Adult villagers weighing 70 kg would have to consume 0.123, 0.082, 1.06, and 280 kg of washed seed daily to exceed the RfD for carboxin, pirimiphos methyl, permethrins, and carbaryl, respectively. Carboxin, pirimiphos methyl, permethrins, and carbaryl were detected in both unwashed and washed samples of seed. Carboxin, total permethrin, and carbaryl concentration were partially reduced by washing. Health risks from chronic exposure to carboxin and pirimiphos methyl in these amounts are unclear. The extent of this practice among food insecure communities receiving relief seeds and resultant health impact needs further study.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 10 October 2012; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.47.
Joshua G Schier; James J Sejvar; Emily Lutterloh; Andrew Likaka; Eugenia Katsoudas; Yelena D Karaseva; Beth Tippett Barr; Yanique Redwood; Stephan Monroe
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1559-064X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101262796     Medline TA:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
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