Document Detail

Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19785606     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned due to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph nodes was analysed by flow cytometry. Results Application of the colour gel both alone and mixed with the developer induced skin production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 as well as systemic IL-6 release. Both treatments induced B- and T-cell infiltration as well as T-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators. Mixing the colour gel and developer (oxidant) increased the induction of skin inflammation compared with application of the colour gel alone.
C M Bonefeld; J M Larsen; S Dabelsteen; C Geisler; I R White; T Menn?; J D Johansen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2009-07-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  The British journal of dermatology     Volume:  162     ISSN:  1365-2133     ISO Abbreviation:  Br. J. Dermatol.     Publication Date:  2010 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-06     Completed Date:  2010-05-24     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0004041     Medline TA:  Br J Dermatol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  102-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Section of Experimental Immunology, Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
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MeSH Terms
Allergens / immunology
B-Lymphocytes / drug effects
Cell Proliferation / drug effects
Cytokines / biosynthesis*
Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / immunology*,  pathology
Ear / pathology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Flow Cytometry
Hair Dyes / adverse effects*,  chemistry
Interleukin-1beta / metabolism
Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
Lymph Nodes / drug effects,  immunology,  pathology
Mice, Inbred CBA
Models, Animal
Patch Tests
Phenylenediamines / adverse effects*
T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Allergens; 0/Cytokines; 0/Hair Dyes; 0/Interleukin-1beta; 0/Interleukin-6; 0/Phenylenediamines; 0/Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 106-50-3/4-phenylenediamine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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