Document Detail

Constitutive Expression of Thermobifida fusca Thermostable Acetylxylan Esterase Gene in Pichia pastoris.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21614198     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
A gene encoding the thermostable acetylxylan esterase (AXE) in Thermobifida fusca NTU22 was amplified by PCR, sequenced and cloned into the Pichia pastoris X-33 host strain using the vector pGAPZαA, allowing constitutive expression and secretion of the protein. Recombinant expression resulted in high levels of extracellular AXE production, as high as 526 U/mL in the Hinton flask culture broth. The purified enzyme showed a single band at about 28 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after being treated with endo-β-N-acetylglycosaminidase H; this agrees with the predicted size based on the nucleotide sequence. About 70% of the original activity remained after heat treatment at 60 °C for three hours. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The properties of the purified AXE from the P. pastoris transformant are similar to those of the AXE from an E. coli transformant.
Chao-Hsun Yang; Kun-I Lin; Gen-Hung Chen; Yu-Fen Chen; Cheng-Yu Chen; Wei-Lin Chen; Yu-Chun Huang
Related Documents :
22085768 - A multigene phylogeny of olpidium and its implications for early fungal evolution.
21902588 - Identification of new crf51_01b in singapore using full genome analysis of three hiv ty...
22172968 - Detection of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 using real time qrt-pcr and conventi...
21904038 - Gene composer in a structural genomics environment.
16150738 - An intron-encoded protein assists rna splicing of multiple similar introns of different...
8049268 - Gene structure and amino acid sequences of alcohol dehydrogenases of bacillus stearothe...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-12-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of molecular sciences     Volume:  11     ISSN:  1422-0067     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Mol Sci     Publication Date:  2010  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-05-26     Completed Date:  2011-07-14     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101092791     Medline TA:  Int J Mol Sci     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  5143-51     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Cosmetic Science, Providence University, 200, Chung-Chi Rd., Taichung, 43301, Taiwan; E-Mails (C.-H.Y.); (G.-H.C); (Y.-F.C.); (C.-Y.C); (W.-L.C).
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Int J Mol Sci
Journal ID (publisher-id): ijms
ISSN: 1422-0067
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Article Information
Download PDF
© 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Received Day: 17 Month: 11 Year: 2010
Revision Received Day: 1 Month: 12 Year: 2010
Accepted Day: 9 Month: 12 Year: 2010
collection publication date: Year: 2010
Electronic publication date: Day: 15 Month: 12 Year: 2010
Volume: 11 Issue: 12
First Page: 5143 Last Page: 5151
ID: 3100850
PubMed Id: 21614198
DOI: 10.3390/ijms11125143
Publisher Id: ijms-11-05143

Constitutive Expression of Thermobifida fusca Thermostable Acetylxylan Esterase Gene in Pichia pastoris
Chao-Hsun Yang1
Kun-I Lin2
Gen-Hung Chen1
Yu-Fen Chen1
Cheng-Yu Chen1
Wei-Lin Chen1
Yu-Chun Huang1*
1Department of Cosmetic Science, Providence University, 200, Chung-Chi Rd., Taichung, 43301, Taiwan; E-Mails (C.-H.Y.); (G.-H.C); (Y.-F.C.); (C.-Y.C); (W.-L.C)
2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, No. 6 Lugong Rd. Lukang Zhen, Changhua County, Taiwan; E-Mail:
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail:
These authors contributed equally to this work.

1.  Introduction

Xylan is a major hemicellulose component of plants and is the most abundant renewable polysaccharide in nature. The complex composition and structure of xylan varies across different plant species [1,2]. It is composed of D-xylopyranosyl residues joined by β-1,4-glycosidic linkages. Some of these xylosyl residues can be substituted at the C2 and/or C3 positions with acetic acid, 4-O-methylglucuronic acid and arabinose [3]. It is not surprising that the synergistic actions of a consortium of microbial enzymes are required for the complete degradation of xylan. Endo-β-1,4-xylanase (EC can randomly cleave the polysaccharide backbone into shorter xylooligosaccharides. These xylooligosaccharides are further degraded by other glycoside hydrolases and esterases [1,2]. Acetylxylan and xylooligosaccharides are deesterified by acetylxylan esterases (EC These enzymes have been found and isolated from many genera, including Trichoderma [4], Aspergillus [5], Penicillium [6], Schizophyllum [7], Rhodotorula [8], Streptomyces [9], Fibrobacter [10], Bacillus [11], Hypocrea [12], Volvariella [13], Neocallimastix [14] and Thermobifida [15].

The importance and development of industrial biotechnology processing has led to the utilization of microbial enzymes in various applications. To produce enzymes for the development of enzymatic degradation of renewable lignocelluloses, we have isolated a potent extracellular lignocellulolytic enzyme-producing thermophilic actinomycete, Thermobifida fusca NTU22, from compost soils collected in Taiwan [16]. Interestingly, it has been reported that T. fusca can produce intracellular and extracellular acetylxylan esterases (AXEs) on oat-spelt xylan [15]. One of the extracellular AXEs was purified and some of its properties were discussed. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 28 kDa by gel filtration on Sepharose CL-6B, indicating that the AXE from T. fusca NTU22 is a monomer. The pI value of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 6.55 by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified esterase was ANPYERGP. The optimum pH and temperature for the purified enzyme were 8.0 and 80 °C, respectively. Zn2+, Hg2+, PMSF and DIPF inhibited the enzyme activity. The Km value for p-nitrophenyl acetate and acetylxylan were 1.86 μM and 0.15%, respectively [17]. The axe gene, which encodes the AXE from T. fusca NTU22, was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli (Accession No. HM 193859). The gene consists of 786 base pairs and encodes a protein of 262 amino acids. The G + C content of the axe coding sequence was 66.9% and the protein had a predicted isoelectric point of 6.34. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AXE exhibited a high degree of similarity with BTA-hydrolase from T. fusca DSM43793, esterase from Thermobifida alba and lipase from Streptomyces albus [18].

In the light of economic benefits, several thermostable enzyme genes from thermophilic microorganisms have been cloned and expressed in mesophilic microorganisms to reduce the energy needed for cultivation [19,20]. E. coli is the first choice for heterologous protein expression due to the ease of genetic manipulation, availability of efficient genetic tools, high transformation efficiency and rapid growth rates. However, misfolding and intracellular production often presents the risk of inclusion body formation. In this study, we expressed the AXE gene from T. fusca NTU22 in a host system other than E. coli because of its potential application as a food supplement. Recently, among many mesophilic host systems, Pichia pastoris, methylotrophic yeast capable of performing many eukaryotic posttranslational modifications, has been considered as an excellent host system for heterologous proteins expression. It is well known that expression can be driven by the strong alcohol oxidase I (AOX1) promoter under methanol induction [21]. In addition, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter has been used for constitutive expression of several heterologous proteins without methanol induction in P. pastoris [14].

The aim of this study was to constitutively express the AXE gene (axe) from the thermophilic actinomycetes, T. fusca NTU22, in P. pastoris X-33. Some properties of the heterologous expressed enzyme were also investigated.

2.  Results and Discussion
2.1.  Amplification and Construction of the AXE Gene in P. pastoris

In order to amplify the AXE gene from plasmid ER405-6, two primers were designed for PCR. According to agarose gel electrophoresis of the PCR product, one major band was apparent at approximately 800 bp and could be eluted for further processes. The axe coding sequence was cloned into the pGAPZαA vector using the XhoI/XbaI restriction sites as described earlier. This construction allowed axe coding sequence to be theoretically in-frame with the α-factor secretion signal in pGAPZαA. Following a sequence check, the construct, denoted as pGAPZ-axe, was BglII-linearized and electroporated into P. pastoris X-33. Four transformants were selected for high resistance to Zeocin (2,000 μg/mL). The genomic PCR assay revealed that all the transformants contained an integrated axe coding sequence in the genomic DNA. Among these four transformants, the transformant (pGAPZ-axe) could produce the highest AXE activity and was selected for further experiments.

2.2.  Expression of the AXE Gene (axe) in P. pastoris

The fermentation conditions for constitutive expression of the AXE were investigated in a 500 mL Hinton flask loaded with 50 mL YPD broth at 28 °C. Transformant (pGAPZ-axe) grew logarithmically from 24 to 48 hours and then entered a stationary phase (Figure 1). The biomass reached approximately 22 of the OD600 value after 48-hours incubation. The enzyme production pattern in this transformant indicated that AXE synthesis began in the middle logarithmic phase and continued to be produced during the stationary phase where the maximum activity (526 U/mL) was reached in the culture broth. The AXE activity was about 500-times higher than that observed when expressed from an E. coli transformant [18]. The control strain, P. pastoris (pGAPZαA), could also produce esterase activity under the same culture conditions (data not shown). In the GAP promoter expression system, the cloned heterologous protein will be expressed along with cell growth if the protein is not toxic for the cell [23,24]. Such a result was observed in this study. As shown in Figure 1, the rapid production of the extracellular AXE occurred in parallel with an increase in biomass accumulation of the P. pastoris transformant.

2.3.  Purification of AXE from P. pastoris Transformant

The purification of AXE was performed as described in the Experimental Section. The results of the total purification are summarized in Table 1. The purified enzyme exhibited 0.68% of the total initial activity and there was a 26.1-fold increase in specific activity when compared with the crude culture filtrate. The amount of extracellular proteins in the culture broth of the P. pastoris transformant was fewer than that in the cell free extract of the E. coli transformant. This will facilitate the application of the enzyme in an industrial process immediately without complicated purification procedures. Most of the non-specific esterase activity from the P. pastoris host was lost in the ultrafiltration process, resulting in a decrease of the purification fold.

2.4.  Properties of AXE from P. pastoris Transformant

As shown in Figure 2, after being treated with endo-β-N-acetylglycosaminidase H for deglycosylation, the purified enzyme showed an apparent single protein band on SDS-PAGE (10% gel). The subunit size of the single protein band was estimated to be 28 kDa from its mobility relative to standard proteins by SDS-PAGE. The optimal pH and temperature of the AXE from P. pastoris transformant (pGAPZ-axe) were 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. About 70% of the original AXE activity remained after heat treatment at 60 °C for three hours. Yang et al. [17] reported that 70% of the AXE activity from T. fusca NTU22 remained after heat treatment at 70 °C for three hours. Apparently the thermostability of the AXE from the P. pastoris transformant is lower than the enzyme from the original strain, T. fusca NTU22.

3.  Experimental Section
3.1.  Microorganisms and Vectors

Thermophilic actinomycetes, T. fusca NTU22, which was isolated from compost soils collected in Taiwan, was used in this study [16]. P. pastoris X-33 and pGAPZαA were purchased from Invitrogen (Sandiego, CA, USA). The plasmid propagation in the expression work was accomplished with E. coli Top 10 (Invitrogen, Sandiego, CA, USA). The plasmid ER405-6 was constructed with the pGEM®-T Easy Vector and a 800 bp inserted fragment, which possessed an AXE gene axe [18].

3.2.  Materials

Yeast extract, peptone, tryptone and agar were purchased from BD (Sparks, MD, USA). Zeocin was obtained from Cayla (Toulouse, France). Restriction endonucleases and T4 DNA ligation kit were purchased from Roche (Mannheim, Germany). For polymerase chain reactions, the Vio Twin Pack Kits comprising VioTag DNA polymerase, polymerase chain reaction buffer and deoxynucleotides were obtained from Viogene (Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Ni-Sepharose™ High Performance resin was purchased from GE Healthcare (Little Chalfont, UK). PiNK Prestained Protein Ladder was purchased from GeneDirex (Las Vegas, NV, USA). The protein assay kit was obtained from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, CA, USA). Endo-β-N-acetylcosaminidase H was purchased from New England Biolabs Inc. (Beverly, MA, USA). Inorganic salts and all other chemicals were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA).

3.3.  Construction of the Amylase Expression Plasmid

The T. fusca NTU22 AXE gene was amplified using the primers 5′-AATTCTAGACCAAATGGACAGGTGCTGCGATACTCTTC-3′ (XhoI site is underlined) and 5′-AACTCGAGAAACGTGAGGCTGAAGCAGCGGCGAATCCGTATGAACGG-3′ (XbaI site is underlined), using ER405-6 as the template. The amplification was performed using a DNA thermal cycler (Perkin Elmer, MA, USA) with the following conditions: the first step was initiated at 95 °C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles of 95 °C for 30 s, 65 °C for 30 s and 72 °C for 90 s, and the final extension was carried out at 72 °C for 7 min. The gel-purified PCR product was digested with XhoI and XbaI and cloned into XhoI and XbaI digested pGAPZαA. After being transformed into E. coli Top 10, one recombinant plasmid designated as pGAPZα-axe was selected on low salt LB agar plates (5 g/L yeast extract, 10 g/L tryptone, 5 g/L NaCl, 15 g/L agar, and adjusted pH to 7.5) containing 25 μg/mL Zeocin. The proper insert orientation was checked by restriction analysis and sequencing as described above [25].

3.4.  Transformation and Screening of P. pastoris

Ten micrograms of recombinant plasmid (pGAPZα-axe) was linearized with BglII, and electroporated into P. pastoris X-33 using the following conditions: 1.5 kV, 25 μF, 200 ohm and 5 ms, using a GenePulser (Bio-Rad, CA, USA). The transformants were selected at 28 °C on YPDS agar plates (10 g/L yeast extract, 20 g/L peptone, 20 g/L dextrose, 20 g/L agar and 1 M sorbitol) containing 100 μg/mL Zeocin for 4–6 days. Screening for high level expression transformants was done by replicating the colonies obtained from the YPDS agar plates containing 100 μg/mL Zeocin onto YPDS agar plates with a higher Zeocin concentration (2,000 μg/mL). Transformants with higher Zeocin-resistance were obtained and checked for the integration of the construct into the P. pastoris X-33 genome by genomic PCR [26].

3.5.  Biomass and Esterase Activity Assay

Biomass production of the P. pastoris transformant was evaluated by measuring the optical density at 600 nm (OD600 value). Esterase activity was assayed as described by Kodemi et al. [27] with slight modification. We used spectrophotometric analysis with p-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate; the release of p-nitrophenol was determined at 405 nm. One unit of enzyme activity was defined as the amount of the enzyme releasing 1 μmol of p-nitrophenol per min at 25 °C, pH 8.0.

3.6.  Cultivation and Expression of AXE in Hinton Flask

The transformant resistant to high concentration of Zeocin was incubated in 50 mL YPD broth (10 g/L yeast extract, 20 g/L peptone, 20 g/L dextrose) in 500 mL Hinton flasks and shaken (150 rpm) at 28 °C. After the cultivation was carried out for several days, the culture broth was centrifuged at 10,000 × g for 30 min at 4 °C and finally the supernatant was tested for AXE activity.

3.7.  Enzyme Purification

All purification procedures were done at 4 °C in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) unless otherwise stated. After 72-hours of cultivation of the P. pastoris transformant (pGAPZα-axe) in a 500 mL Hinton flask, the fermentation broth was centrifuged at 3,000 × g for 30 min to remove cells. The supernatant was then applied to a Ni-Sepharose™ High Performance column (1.13 cm × 8 cm) pre-equilibrated with Tris-HCl buffer. After washing with wash buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, 500 mM sodium chloride, 40 mM imidazole; pH 7.5) to remove the unbound protein, the enzyme was eluted with elution buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, 500 mM sodium chloride, 500 mM imidazole; pH 7.5). The eluted enzymatically active fractions were pooled and used as the purified enzyme.

3.8.  SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was determined by using SDS-PAGE (10% polyacrylamide). PiNK Prestained Protein Ladder was used as molecular mass standards. The electrophoresis was carried out at 150 V for 1 h. The gel was stained with 0.27% Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250, and destained by washing overnight with a mixture of acetic acid-methanol-water (10:20:70, V/V).

3.9.  Deglycosylation of AXE from P. pastoris Transformant

The purified enzyme from P. pastoris transformant was deglycosylated by denaturing the glycoprotein at 100 °C for 10 min, and then endo-β-N-acetylglycos-aminidase H was added to perform deglycosylation at 37 °C for 1 h. All manipulations followed the manufacturer’s instructions.

4.  Conclusions

We are interested in the production of lignocellulolytic enzyme from local thermophilic actinomycetes to explore their use in novel biotechnological applications. The thermostable AXE gene (axe) from thermophilic actinomycetes, T. fusca NTU22, was heterologously expressed in the mesophilic host system, P. pastoris, for further exploration. This GAP expression system is more suitable than the AOX expression system for large-scale production because the hazard and cost associated with the storage and delivery of large volumes of methanol are eliminated. Thus, the features of the GAP expression system may contribute significantly to the development of cost-effective methods for large-scale production of heterologous recombinant proteins. These findings hold promise in large-scale production of thermostable AXE and application in both agricultural and food industries.

Financial support for this study from the National Science Council of the Republic of China (NSC98-2320-B-126-001-MY3) is gratefully acknowledged.

1.. Coughlan MP,Hazlewood GP. β-1,4-D-Xylan-degrading enzyme systems: Biochemistry, molecular biology and applicationsAppl. Biochem. BiotechnolYear: 199317259289
2.. Christov LP,Prior BA. Esterases of xylan-degrading microorganisms: Production, properties, and significanceEnzyme Microb. TechnolYear: 1993154604757763680
3.. Kato Y,Nevins DJ. Isolation and identification of O-(5-O-feruloyl-α-L-arabinofuranosyl)-1(→3)-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-xylopyranose as a component of Zea shoot cell-wallsCarbohydr. ResYear: 1985137139150
4.. Biely P,Cote GL,Kremnicky L,Greene RV,Tenkanen M. Action of acetylxylan esterase from Trichoderma reesei on acetylated methyl glycosidesFEBS LettYear: 19974201211249459293
5.. Khan AW,Lamb KA,Overend RP. Comparison of natural hemicellulose and chemically acetylated xylan as substrates for the determination of acetyl-xylan esterase activity in AspergilliEnzyme Microb. TechnolYear: 199012127131
6.. Chavez R,Bull P,Eyzaguirre J. The xylanolytic enzyme system from the genus PenicilliumJ. BiotechnolYear: 200612341343316569456
7.. Biely P,MacKenzie CR,Schneider H. Production of acetyl xylan esterase by Trichoderma reesei and Schizophllum communeCan. J. MicrobiolYear: 198834767772
8.. Lee H,To RJ,Latta RK,Biely P,Schneider H. Some properties of extracellular acetylxylan esterase produced by the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosaAppl. Environ. MicrobiolYear: 1987532831283416347498
9.. Dupont C,Daigneault N,Shareck F,Morosoli R,Kluepfel D. Purification and characterization of an acetyl xylan esterase produced by Streptomyces lividansBiochem. JYear: 19963198818868920994
10.. McDermid KP,MacKenzie CR,Forsberg CW. Esterase Activities of Fibrobacter succinogenes subsp. succinogenes S85Appl. Environ. MicrobiolYear: 19905612713216348084
11.. Krastanova I,Guarnaccia C,Zahariev S,Degrassi G,Lamba D. Heterologous expression, purification, crystallization, X-ray analysis and phasing of the acetyl xylan esterase from Bacillus pumilusBiochim. Biophys. ActaYear: 2005174822223015769599
12.. Li XL,Skory CD,Cotta MA,Puchart V,Biely P. Novel family of carbohydrate esterases, based on identification of the Hypocrea jecorina acetyl esterase geneAppl. Environ. MicrobiolYear: 2008747482748918978092
13.. Liu X,Ding S. Molecular characterization of a new acetyl xylan esterase (AXEII) from edible straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea with both de-O-acetylation and de-N-acetylation activityFEMS Microbiol. LettYear: 2009295505619473250
14.. Pai CK,Wu ZY,Chen MJ,Zeng YF,Chen JW,Duan CH,Li ML,Liu JR. Molecular cloning and characterization of a bifunctional xylanolytic enzyme from Neocallimastix patriciarumAppl. Microbiol. BiotechnolYear: 2010851451146219690850
15.. Bachmann SL,McCarthy AJ. Purification and cooperative activity of enzymes constituting the xylan-degrading system of Thermomonospora fuscaAppl. Environ. MicrobiolYear: 1991572121213016348531
16.. Liu WH,Yang CH. The isolation and identification of a lignocellulolytic and thermophilic actinomyceteFood Sci. Agric. ChemYear: 200248994
17.. Yang CH,Liu WH. Purification and properties of an acetylxylan esterase from Thermobifida fuscaEnzyme Microb. TechnolYear: 200842181186
18.. Huang YC,Chen GH,Chen YF,Chen WL,Yang CH. Heterologous expression of thermostable acetylxylan esterase gene from Thermobifida fusca and its synergistic action with xylanase for the production of xylooligosaccharidesBiochem Biophys Res CommunYear: 201010.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.136
19.. Zamost BL,Nielsen HK,Starnes RL. Thermostable enzymes for industrial applicationJ. Ind. Microbiol BiotechnolYear: 199187182
20.. Cheng YF,Yang CH,Liu WH. Cloning and expression of Thermobifida xylanase gene in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastorisEnzyme Microb. TechnolYear: 200537541546
21.. Cereghino JL,Cregg JM. Heterologous protein expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastorisFEMS Microbiol. RevYear: 200024456610640598
22.. Zhang AL,Zhang TY,Luo JX,Chen SC,Guan WJ,Fu CY,Peng SQ,Li HL. Constitutive expression of human angiostatin in Pichia pastoris by high-density cell cultureJ. Ind. Microbiol. BiotechnolYear: 20073411712216988811
23.. Cos O,Ramón R,Montesinos JL,Valero F. Operational strategies, monitoring and control of heterologous protein production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under different promoters: A reviewMicrob Cell FactYear: 200651710.1186/1475-2859-5-1716600031
24.. Goodrick JC,Xu M,Finnegan R,Schilling BM,Schiavi S,Hoppe H,Wan NC. High-level expression and stabilization of recombinant human chitinase produced in a continuous constitutive Pichia pastoris expression systemBiotechnol. BioengYear: 20017449249711494216
25.. Yang CH,Huang YC,Chen CY,Wen CY. Expression of Thermobifida fusca thermostable raw starch digesting alpha-amylase in Pichia pastoris and its application in raw sago starch hydrolysisJ. Ind. Microbiol. BiotechnolYear: 20103740140620039188
26.. Reddy ST,Kumar SN,Haas AL,Dahms NM. Biochemical and functional properties of the full-length cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor expressed in Pichia pastorisBiochem. Biophys. Res. CommunYear: 200330964365112963039
27.. Kademi A,Ait-Abdelkader N,Fakhreddine L,Baratti JC. A thermostable esterase activity from newly isolated moderate thermophilic bacterial strainsEnzyme Microb. TechnolYear: 199924332338

Article Categories:
  • Article

Keywords: acetylxylan esterase (AXE), Pichia pastoris, Thermobifida fusca, constitutive expression.

Previous Document:  Molecular interactions and protein-induced DNA hairpin in the transcriptional control of bacteriopha...
Next Document:  Applications of chitin and its derivatives in biological medicine.