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Conservation Strategies for Species Affected by Apparent Competition.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23282104     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Apparent competition is an indirect interaction between 2 or more prey species through a shared predator, and it is increasingly recognized as a mechanism of the decline and extinction of many species. Through case studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of 4 management strategies for species affected by apparent competition: predator control, reduction in the abundances of alternate prey, simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey, and no active management of predators or alternate prey. Solely reducing predator abundances rapidly increased abundances of alternate and rare prey, but observed increases are likely short-lived due to fast increases in predator abundance following the cessation of control efforts. Substantial reductions of an abundant alternate prey resulted in increased predation on endangered huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) deer in Chilean Patagonia, which highlights potential risks associated with solely reducing alternate prey species. Simultaneous removal of predators and alternate prey increased survival of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) in California (U.S.A.) above a threshold required for population recovery. In the absence of active management, populations of rare woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) continued to decline in British Columbia, Canada. On the basis of the cases we examined, we suggest the simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey is the management strategy most likely to increase abundances and probabilities of persistence of rare prey over the long term. Knowing the mechanisms driving changes in species' abundances before implementing any management intervention is critical. We suggest scientists can best contribute to the conservation of species affected by apparent competition by clearly communicating the biological and demographic forces at play to policy makers responsible for the implementation of proposed management actions. Estrategias de Conservación para Especies Afectadas por Competencia Aparente.
Authors:
Heiko U Wittmer; Robert Serrouya; L Mark Elbroch; Andrew J Marshall
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-2
Journal Detail:
Title:  Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1523-1739     ISO Abbreviation:  Conserv. Biol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-3     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9882301     Medline TA:  Conserv Biol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Affiliation:
School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand. heiko.wittmer@vuw.ac.nz.
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