Document Detail

Confounding by indication: the case of calcium channel blockers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19025800     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
PURPOSE: To review conceptual issues regarding confounding by indication in the context of studies of calcium channel blockers (CCBs).
METHODS: Review of literature, with special attention to two articles in the current issue.
RESULTS: Conflicting arguments about the presence of uncontrollable confounding by indication in studies of CCBs are reviewed and criticized. Studies with potential confounding by indication can benefit from appropriate analytic methods, including separating the effects of a drug taken at different times, sensitivity analysis for unmeasured confounders, and instrumental variables and G-estimation.
CONCLUSIONS: Whether confounding by indication accounts for observed associations is often difficult to determine; this is the case in studies of CCBs. When confounding by indication is suspected, a variety of methods to deal with it may be useful. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
M M Joffe
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety     Volume:  9     ISSN:  1099-1557     ISO Abbreviation:  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf     Publication Date:  2000 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-11-25     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9208369     Medline TA:  Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  37-41     Citation Subset:  -    
Division of Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 602 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6021, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  The calcium-channel blocker controversy: historical perspective and important lessons for future pha...
Next Document:  Lofexidine in opiate withdrawal: a safety and usage survey.