Document Detail

Confounded by confounding: separating association from causation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10396438     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Health-care professionals need to be able to distinguish causal relationships from simple associations in two main areas: when unravelling the aetiology of diseases, and when assessing the effects of therapies. In each of these the presence of confounding can seriously mislead. This short report explains the nature of confounding and outlines criteria that can be applied to help distinguish causality from mere statistical associations.
H T Davies; F L Williams
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Hospital medicine (London, England : 1998)     Volume:  60     ISSN:  1462-3935     ISO Abbreviation:  Hosp Med     Publication Date:  1999 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-07-22     Completed Date:  1999-07-22     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9803882     Medline TA:  Hosp Med     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  294-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Management, University of St Andrews, Fife.
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MeSH Terms
Bias (Epidemiology)
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)*
Disease / etiology*
Health Personnel
Therapeutic Equivalency

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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