Document Detail

Cone arrestin: deciphering the structure and functions of arrestin 4 in vision.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24292827     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Cone arrestin (Arr4) was discovered 20 years ago as a human X-chromosomal gene that is highly expressed in pinealocytes and cone photoreceptors. Subsequently, specific antibodies were developed to identify Arr4 and to distinguish cone photoreceptor morphology in health and disease states. These reagents were used to demonstrate Arr4 translocation from cone inner segments in the dark to outer segments with light stimulation, similarly to Arrestin 1 (Arr1) translocation in rod photoreceptors. A decade later, the Arr4 crystal structure was solved, which provided more clues about Arr4's mechanisms of action. With the creation of genetically engineered visual arrestin knockout mice, one critical function of Arr4 was clarified. In single living cones, both visual arrestins bind to light-activated, G protein receptor kinase 1 (Grk1) phosphorylated cone opsins to desensitize them, and in their absence, mouse cone pigment shutoff is delayed. Still under investigation are additional functions; however, it is clear that Arr4 has non-opsin-binding partners and diverse synaptic roles, including cellular anchoring and trafficking. Recent studies reveal Arr4 is involved in high temporal resolution and contrast sensitivity, which opens up a new direction for research on this intriguing protein. Even more exciting is the potential for therapeutic use of the Arr4 promoter with an AAV-halorhodopsin that was shown to be effective in using the remaining cones in retinal degeneration mouse models to drive inner retinal circuitry for motion detection and light/dark discrimination.
Cheryl Mae Craft; Janise D Deming
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Handbook of experimental pharmacology     Volume:  219     ISSN:  0171-2004     ISO Abbreviation:  Handb Exp Pharmacol     Publication Date:  2014  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-12-02     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7902231     Medline TA:  Handb Exp Pharmacol     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  117-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Mary D. Allen Laboratory for Vision Research, Doheny Eye Institute, Departments of Ophthalmology and Cell and Neurobiology, , Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo Street, DVRC 405, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA,
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