Document Detail

Concurrent micronutrient deficiencies in lactating mothers and their infants in Indonesia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11273854     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc are prevalent worldwide, affecting vulnerable groups such as lactating women and infants. However, the existence of concurrent deficiencies has received little attention. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the extent to which deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc coexist and the nutritional relation between lactating mothers and their infants. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional survey in rural West Java, Indonesia, 155 lactating mothers and their healthy infants were assessed anthropometrically and blood, urine, and breast-milk samples were obtained. RESULTS: Marginal vitamin A deficiency was found in 54% of the infants and 18% of the mothers. More than 50% of the mothers and infants were anemic and 17% of the infants and 25% of the mothers were zinc deficient. There was a strong interrelation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and infants and the concentrations of retinol and beta-carotene in breast milk. Vitamin A deficiency in infants led to an increased risk of anemia and zinc deficiency (odds ratios: 2.5 and 2.9, respectively), whereas in mothers the risk of anemia and iron deficiency (odds ratios: 3.8 and 4.8, respectively) increased. In infants, concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I were related to concentrations of plasma retinol and beta-carotene but not to zinc. CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent in West Java. The micronutrient status of lactating mothers and that of their infants were closely related; breast milk was a key connecting factor for vitamin A status. Furthermore, concurrent micronutrient deficiencies appeared to be the norm.
M A Dijkhuizen; F T Wieringa; C E West; Muherdiyantiningsih; Muhilal
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  73     ISSN:  0002-9165     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2001 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-03-29     Completed Date:  2001-04-19     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  786-91     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Indonesia / epidemiology
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis
Iron / analysis*,  deficiency
Lactation / blood,  physiology*
Micronutrients / deficiency*
Milk, Human / chemistry*
Odds Ratio
Vitamin A / analysis*
Vitamin A Deficiency / epidemiology
Zinc / analysis*,  deficiency
beta Carotene / analysis
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Micronutrients; 11103-57-4/Vitamin A; 67763-96-6/Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7235-40-7/beta Carotene; 7439-89-6/Iron; 7440-66-6/Zinc

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