Document Detail


Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in urban airborne particulate matter in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15926542     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Heavy metal concentrations were measured in airborne dust collected at three sites with different traffic densities from August 2001 to July 2002 in the Frankfurt am Main area. Bulk samples of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of <22 microm were collected on cellulose nitrate filters using air filtration devices. Fractionated samples of PM with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of <10 microm were collected using an eight-stage Andersen impactor. Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Zn, V, As, Sb, Cu, Cr, Co, and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry, Pt and Rh were determined by adsorptive voltammetry, and Pd was determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. The results show that the highest airborne heavy metal concentrations occurred at the main street with a large volume of traffic. With the exception of Co, V, Ce, and Mn, the heavy metals had an elevated enrichment factor compared to their concentrations in the continental crust. The main street site was especially contaminated with Sb, Zn, Cu, V, and Ni. Motor vehicles are the likely source of emissions. With the exception of Cr, Cu, and Zn, most of the airborne heavy metal concentrations determined for impactor samples deviate slightly from the results for total airborne dust. Heavy metal particle size distributions can be divided into three groups. For metals such as As, Cd, Pb, and V, the main fraction can be found in fine particles with a diameter of <2.1 microm, whereas Ce, Cr, Co, and Ni occur mainly in coarse particles with a diameter of >2.1 microm. Cu, Mn, Sb, Zn, Pt, Pd, and Rh occur in high concentrations in the medium range of the impactor stages (particle diameters of 1.1-4.7 microm). Metal concentrations in fine dust particles are needed to assess the human health risks of their inhalation.
Authors:
Fathi Zereini; Friedrich Alt; Jürgen Messerschmidt; Clare Wiseman; Ingo Feldmann; Alex von Bohlen; Jürgen Müller; Karlheinz Liebl; Wilhelm Püttmann
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  39     ISSN:  0013-936X     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2005 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-06-01     Completed Date:  2005-08-10     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2983-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Institute of Mineralogy, Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry, J. W. Goethe-University, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 16, D-60054 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. zereini@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Air Pollutants / analysis*
Cities
Dust
Environmental Monitoring
Germany
Metals, Heavy / analysis*
Particle Size
Vehicle Emissions / analysis*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Dust; 0/Metals, Heavy; 0/Vehicle Emissions

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