Document Detail


Computational modeling of human coreceptor CCR5 antagonist as a HIV-1 entry inhibitor: using an integrated homology modeling, docking, and membrane molecular dynamics simulation analysis approach.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23153179     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is an integral membrane protein that is utilized during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 entry into host cells. CCR5 is a G-protein coupled receptor that contains seven transmembrane (TM) helices. However, the crystal structure of CCR5 has not been reported. A homology model of CCR5 was developed based on the recently reported CXCR4 structure as template. Automated docking of the most potent (14), medium potent (37), and least potent (25) CCR5 antagonists was performed using the CCR5 model. To characterize the mechanism responsible for the interactions between ligands (14, 25, and 37) and CCR5, membrane molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were performed. The position and orientation of ligands (14, 25, and 37) were found to be changed after MD simulations, which demonstrated the ability of this technique to identify binding modes. Furthermore, at the end of simulation, it was found that residues identified by docking were changed and some new residues were introduced in the proximity of ligands. Our results are in line with the majority of previous mutational reports. These results show that hydrophobicity is the determining factor of CCR5 antagonism. In addition, salt bridging and hydrogen bond contacts between ligands (14, 25, and 37) and CCR5 are also crucial for inhibitory activity. The residues newly identified by MD simulation are Ser160, Phe166, Ser180, His181, and Trp190, and so far no site-directed mutagenesis studies have been reported. To determine the contributions made by these residues, additional mutational studies are suggested. We propose a general binding mode for these derivatives based on the MD simulation results of higher (14), medium (37), and lower (25) potent inhibitors. Interestingly, we found some trend for these inhibitors such as, salt bridge interaction between basic nitrogen of ligand and acidic Glu283 seemed necessary for inhibitory activity. Also, two aromatic pockets (pocket I - TM1-3 and pocket II - TM3-6) were linked by the central polar region in TM7, and the simulated inhibitors show important interactions with the Trp86, Tyr89, Tyr108, Phe112, Ile198, Tyr251, Leu255, and Gln280 and Glu283 residues. These results shed light on the usage of MD simulation to identify more stable, optimal binding modes of the inhibitors.
Authors:
Changdev G Gadhe; Gugan Kothandan; Seung Joo Cho
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1538-0254     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-16     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8404176     Medline TA:  J Biomol Struct Dyn     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
a Departments of Bio-New Drug Development and Cellular·Molecular Medicine and Research Center for Resistant Cells , College of Medicine, Chosun University , Gwangju , 501-759 , Republic of Korea.
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