Document Detail


Computational fluid dynamics modeling of ventilation of confined-space manure storage facilities: applications.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19044169     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Fatalities associated with entry into on-farm confined-space manure storage tanks occur each year The fatalities are due to asphyxiation or poisoning by exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide. Forced ventilation has been shown to be an effective way to reduce concentrations of these noxious gases to levels that are safe for human entry into these storage tanks. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was used as an indicator gas to investigate the effectiveness of forced ventilation strategies for eliminating the toxic and oxygen-deficient atmospheres in confined-space manure tanks. Validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling protocols were used to simulate H2S evacuation from fan-ventilated manure tanks. The simulation studies were conducted for rectangular and circular manure tanks, and the effects of pollutant source, inter-contamination (process by which a portion of exhausted contaminant gas enters a ventilated confined airspace through the fresh air intake), storage size (i.e., length, diameter), and air exchange rate on H2S removalfrom fan-ventilated manure tanks were investigated. For the same air exchange rate, as the size (i.e., length, diameter) of the tank increased, the rate of evacuation of the H2S from the confined space decreased. For rectangular and circular manure tanks, the higher the air exchange rate, the higher the rate of evacuation of the H2S from the confined space. For the rectangular tank geometries and ventilation system layouts simulated, evacuation times decreased exponentially with air exchange rate. Evacuation times for the circular tanks simulated decreased linearly with air exchange rate.
Authors:
J Zhao; H B Manbeck; D J Murphy
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural safety and health     Volume:  14     ISSN:  1074-7583     ISO Abbreviation:  J Agric Saf Health     Publication Date:  2008 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-12-02     Completed Date:  2009-01-06     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9613956     Medline TA:  J Agric Saf Health     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  405-29     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
epartment of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Accidents, Occupational / mortality,  prevention & control*
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis*
Asphyxia / mortality,  prevention & control
Carbon Dioxide / analysis
Confined Spaces
Environmental Monitoring / methods
Facility Design and Construction* / methods,  standards
Humans
Hydrogen Sulfide / analysis
Manure / analysis*
Occupational Exposure / prevention & control*
Risk Assessment
Ventilation / methods*,  standards
Waste Management / methods
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
1U50/OH07542/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Manure; 124-38-9/Carbon Dioxide; 7783-06-4/Hydrogen Sulfide

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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