Document Detail

Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18646105     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Material or financial incentives may be used in an attempt to reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been widely used in workplace smoking cessation programmes, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. Quit and Win contests are the subject of a companion review.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether competitions and incentives lead to higher long-term quit rates. We also set out to examine the relationship between incentives and participation rates.
SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Search terms included incentive*, competition*, contest*, reward*, prize*, contingent payment*, deposit contract*. The most recent searches were in December 2007.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomized controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted by one author and checked by the second. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking at least six months from the start of the intervention. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Where possible we performed meta-analysis using a generic inverse variance model, grouped by timed endpoints, but not pooled across the subgroups.
MAIN RESULTS: Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. None of the studies demonstrated significantly higher quit rates for the incentives group than for the control group beyond the six-month assessment. There was no clear evidence that participants who committed their own money to the programme did better than those who did not, or that different types of incentives were more or less effective. There is some evidence that although cessation rates have not been shown to differ significantly, recruitment rates can be improved by rewarding participation, which may be expected to deliver higher absolute numbers of successful quitters. Cost effectiveness analysis is not appropriate to this review, since the efficacy of the intervention has not been demonstrated.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Incentives and competitions have not been shown to enhance long-term cessation rates, with early success tending to dissipate when the rewards are no longer offered. Rewarding participation and compliance in contests and cessation programmes may have more potential to deliver higher absolute numbers of quitters.
Kate Cahill; Rafael Perera
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review     Date:  2008-07-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Cochrane database of systematic reviews     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1469-493X     ISO Abbreviation:  Cochrane Database Syst Rev     Publication Date:  2008  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-22     Completed Date:  2008-10-15     Revised Date:  2014-03-25    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100909747     Medline TA:  Cochrane Database Syst Rev     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  CD004307     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Health Promotion / methods
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Smoking Cessation / methods,  psychology*
Update In:
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(4):CD004307   [PMID:  21491388 ]
Update Of:
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD004307   [PMID:  15846705 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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