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Comparison of phenelzine and geometric isomers of its active metabolite, β-phenylethylidenehydrazine, on rat brain levels of amino acids, biogenic amine neurotransmitters and methylamine.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23392617     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor used in treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. It also elevates brain levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and inhibits primary amine oxidase (PrAO), an enzyme whose activity and/or expression has been reported to be increased in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disorders. Phenelzine is not only an inhibitor of, but also a substrate for, MAO and it has been suggested that an active metabolite, namely β-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), is responsible for phenelzine's effects on amino acids. PEH is also a strong inhibitor of PrAO but has weak effects on MAO. PEH has a double bond and can thus exist as (E)- and (Z)-geometric isomers, but to date the two isomers have not been compared with regard to their neurochemical effects. We have investigated the effects of phenelzine, (E)- and (Z)-PEH on rat whole brain levels of amino acids, biogenic amine neurotransmitters and methylamine (an endogenous substrate of PrAO). Under the conditions used in the study, (E)- and (Z)-PEH appear to be equivalent in their neurochemical properties. Both PEH isomers and phenelzine produced marked increases in rat brain levels of GABA and alanine while decreasing brain levels of glutamine. Phenelzine increased brain levels of biogenic amine neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin), whereas neither PEH isomer altered levels of these neurotransmitters to a considerable extent. All three drugs significantly increased rat brain levels of methylamine, with (E)- and (Z)-PEH causing a greater increase than phenelzine. These results are discussed in relation to the possible therapeutic applications of these drugs.
Authors:
Dmitriy Matveychuk; Emerson Nunes; Nasir Ullah; Carlos A Velázquez-Martinez; Erin M Mackenzie; Glen B Baker
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-2-8
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1435-1463     ISO Abbreviation:  J Neural Transm     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-2-8     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9702341     Medline TA:  J Neural Transm     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
12-105B Clinical Sciences Building, Neurochemical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G3, Canada, dmitriym@ualberta.ca.
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