Document Detail

Comparison of muscle functional electrical stimulation to conventional bicycle exercise on endothelium and functional status indices in patients with heart failure.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21094364     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The aim of this prospective, open-label, cohort study was to compare the effect of muscle functional electrical stimulation (FES) on endothelial function to that of conventional bicycle training. Eligible patients were those with New York Heart Association class II or III heart failure symptoms and ejection fractions ≤ 0.35. Two physical conditioning programs were delivered: FES of the muscles of the lower limbs and bicycle training, each lasting for 6 weeks, with a 6-week washout period between them. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other parameters were assessed before and after FES and the bicycle training program. FES resulted in a significant improvement in FMD, which increased from 5.9 ± 0.5% to 7.7 ± 0.5% (95% confidence interval for the difference 1.5% to 2.3%, p < 0.001). Bicycle training also resulted in a substantial improvement of endothelial function. FMD increased from 6.2 ± 0.4% to 9.2 ± 0.4% (95% confidence interval for the difference 2.5% to 3.5%, p < 0.001). FES was associated with a 41% relative increase in FMD, compared to 57% with bicycle exercise (95% confidence interval for the difference between the relative changes 1.2% to 30.5%, p = 0.034). This resulted in attaining a significantly higher FMD value after bicycle training compared to FES (9.2 ± 0.4% vs 7.7 ± 0.5%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the effect of muscle FES in patients with heart failure on endothelial function, although not equivalent to that of conventional exercise, is substantial. Muscle FES protocols may prove very useful in the treatment of patients with heart failure who cannot or will not adhere to conventional exercise programs.
Spyridon Deftereos; Georgios Giannopoulos; Konstantinos Raisakis; Charalampos Kossyvakis; Andreas Kaoukis; Metaxia Driva; Loukas Pappas; Vasiliki Panagopoulou; Olga Ntzouvara; Apostolos Karavidas; Vlasios Pyrgakis; Ilias Rentoukas; Constadina Aggeli; Christodoulos Stefanadis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial     Date:  2010-10-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of cardiology     Volume:  106     ISSN:  1879-1913     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2010 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-24     Completed Date:  2011-01-20     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0207277     Medline TA:  Am J Cardiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1621-5     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cardiology Department and Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Athens General Hospital G. Gennimatas, Athens, Greece.
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MeSH Terms
Brachial Artery / physiopathology
Cross-Over Studies
Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
Exercise / physiology*
Exercise Test
Exercise Therapy / methods*
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Failure / physiopathology,  therapy*
Middle Aged
Muscle, Skeletal
Prospective Studies
Treatment Outcome
Vasodilation / physiology*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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