Document Detail

Comparison of complementary feeding strategies to meet zinc requirements of older breastfed infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22648720     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The low zinc intake from human milk at ∼6 mo of age predicts the dependence on complementary foods (CF) to meet the zinc requirements of older breastfed-only infants.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare major variables of zinc homeostasis and zinc status in 9-mo-old breastfed infants who were randomly assigned to different complementary food regimens.
DESIGN: Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-mo-old infants were randomly assigned to receive commercially available pureed meats, iron-and-zinc-fortified infant cereal (IZFC), or whole-grain, iron-only-fortified infant cereal (IFC) as the first and primary CF until completion of zinc metabolic studies between 9 and 10 mo of age. A zinc stable-isotope methodology was used to measure the fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) in human milk and CF by dual-isotope ratios in urine. Calculated variables included the dietary intake from duplicate diets and 4-d test weighing, the total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from FAZ × diet zinc, and the exchangeable zinc pool size (EZP) from isotope enrichment in urine.
RESULTS: Mean daily zinc intakes were significantly greater for the meat and IZFC groups than for the IFC group (P < 0.001); only intakes in meat and IZFC groups met estimated average requirements. Mean (±SEM) TAZ amounts were 0.80 ± 0.08, 0.71 ± 0.09, and 0.52 ± 0.05 mg/d for the meat, IZFC, and IFC groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Zinc from human milk contributed <25% of TAZ for all groups. The EZP correlated with both zinc intake (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and TAZ (r = 0.54, P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Zinc requirements for older breastfed-only infants are unlikely to be met without the regular consumption of either meats or zinc-fortified foods.
Nancy F Krebs; Jamie E Westcott; Diana L Culbertson; Lei Sian; Leland V Miller; K Michael Hambidge
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-05-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  96     ISSN:  1938-3207     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Clin. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-21     Completed Date:  2012-09-07     Revised Date:  2013-07-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376027     Medline TA:  Am J Clin Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  30-5     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / blood,  urine
Breast Feeding*
Cereals / chemistry
Food, Fortified / analysis
Infant Food / analysis*
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Intestinal Absorption
Meat Products / analysis
Milk, Human / chemistry
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritional Status
Phytic Acid / administration & dosage,  analysis
Zinc / administration & dosage*,  analysis,  deficiency,  metabolism
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 7440-66-6/Zinc; 83-86-3/Phytic Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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