Document Detail

Common Variants of the Resistance Mechanism in the Smith Machine: Analysis of Mechanical Loading Characteristics and Application to Strength-Oriented and Hypertrophy-Oriented Training.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22228113     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Arandjelović, O. Common variants of the resistance mechanism in the Smith machine: analysis of mechanical loading characteristics and application to strength-oriented and hypertrophy-oriented training. J Strength Cond Res 26(X): 000-000, 2012-The Smith machine is a pervasive weight-training apparatus, used extensively by a wide population of weight trainers, from novices to high-level athletes. The advantages of using a Smith machine over free-weight resistance are disputed, with conflicting findings reported in the literature. In this study, we are interested in practical differences between 3 types of loading mechanisms found in modern Smith machines. In addition to the basic design comprising a constrained weighted barbell, alterations with a counterweight and a viscous resistance component are examined. The approach taken is that of employing a recently proposed representation of force characteristics that may be exhibited by a trainee and a predictive model of thus effected adaptation. A computer simulation is used to predict the effects of the 3 linear Smith machine designs in the framework of different exercise protocols. Our results demonstrate that each resistance component, vertically constrained load, counterweight, and viscous, can be matched with a particular training context, in which it should be preferred. Thus, a number of practical guidelines for weight-training practitioners are recommended. In summary, (a) at low intensities (55-75% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) used in strength-endurance training, a viscous resistance containing the Smith machine was found to offer advantages over both a constrained load only and counterweighted designs; (b) at medium intensities (75-85% of 1RM) typically employed in hypertrophy-specific training, the counterweighted Smith machine design was found to offer the best choice in terms of high-force development and total external work performed; finally, (c) at high training intensity (90-100% of 1RM), the optimal prescription was found to be more dependent on the specific athlete's weaknesses, highlighting the need for continual monitoring of the athlete's force production capabilities. To ensure that appropriate adjustments are made to the athlete's training regimen, the practitioner should consider the full set of findings of this article and the accompanying discussion.
Ognjen Arandjelović
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1533-4287     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-9     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9415084     Medline TA:  J Strength Cond Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Trinity College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
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