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Colonic Catabolism of Ellagitannins, Ellagic acid and Raspberry Anthocyanins: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21622625     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Red raspberries contain principally anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Following ingestion of raspberries by humans trace levels of anthocyanins, absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract, are excreted in urine in amounts corresponding to <0.1% of intake. Urine also contains urolithin-O-glucuronides derived from colonic metabolism of the ellagitannins. Raspberry feeds with ileostomists show that substantial amounts of the anthocyanin and ellagitannin intake are excreted in ileal fluid. In subjects with an intact functioning colon, these compounds would pass to the large intestine. The aim of this study was to identify raspberry-derived phenolic acid catabolites that form in the colon and those that are subsequently excreted in urine. In vitro anaerobic incubation of ellagitannins with fecal suspensions demonstrated conversion to ellagic acid and several urolithins. Fecal suspensions converted 80% of added ellagic acid to urolithins. In vivo, urolithins are excreted in urine as O-glucuronides not aglycones indicating that the colonic microflora convert ellagitannins to urolithins while glucuronidation occurs in the wall of the large intestine and/or post-absorption in the liver. Unlike ellagitannins, raspberry anthocyanins were converted in vitro to phenolic acids by anaerobic fecal suspensions. Urinary excretion of phenolic acids following ingestion of raspberries indicates that after formation in the colon some phenolic acids undergo phase II metabolism resulting in the formation of products that do not accumulate when anthocyanins are degraded in fecal suspensions. There is a growing realisation that colonic catabolites such as phenolic acids and urolithins may have important roles in the protective effects of a fruit and vegetable-rich diet.
Authors:
Rocio Gonzalez-Barrio; Edwards Christine; Alan Crozier
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-5-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1521-009X     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-5-30     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9421550     Medline TA:  Drug Metab Dispos     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
University of Glasgow.
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