Document Detail

Cold air-provoked respiratory symptoms: the mechanisms and management.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17515249     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: To describe the mechanisms and management of cold air-provoked respiratory symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: A literature review. METHODS: The review includes human epidemiological studies, human and animal experimental studies, as well as human studies about management of the cold air-provoked respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: Cold air is unlikely to be a causal factor initiating respiratory diseases but a symptom trigger. In the present review, the airway responses beyond these symptoms were divided into three types. The short-term responses are those that develop within minutes in response to sudden cooling of the airways. Subjects with asthma or rhinitis are especially prone to these responses. The long-term responses are those that develop in response to repeated and long-standing cooling and drying of the airways, usually in endurance athletes. Finally, there are the physiological, reflex-mediated lower-airway responses to cooling of the skin or upper airways. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanisms beyond cold air-provoked respiratory symptoms vary considerably and mainly depend on the individual's susceptibility and the ventilation level during the cold exposure. An understanding of these mechanisms is essential for successful management of the symptoms.
Heikki Olavi Koskela
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of circumpolar health     Volume:  66     ISSN:  1239-9736     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Circumpolar Health     Publication Date:  2007 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-05-22     Completed Date:  2007-07-03     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9713056     Medline TA:  Int J Circumpolar Health     Country:  Finland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  91-100     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
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MeSH Terms
Asthma / physiopathology
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Bronchoconstriction / physiology
Cold Climate / adverse effects*
Dehydration / etiology,  physiopathology
Exercise / physiology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / physiopathology
Respiratory Mucosa / physiopathology
Respiratory Tract Diseases / physiopathology*
Rhinitis / physiopathology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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