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Coccidioidomycosis-associated Deaths, United States, 1990-2008.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23092645     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Coccidioidomycosis is endemic to the Americas; however, data on deaths caused by this disease are limited. To determine the rate of coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths in the United States, we examined multiple cause-coded death records for 1990-2008 for demographics, secular trends, and geographic distribution. Deaths were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision, codes, and mortality rates were calculated. Associations of deaths among persons with selected concurrent conditions were examined and compared with deaths among a control group who did not have coccidioidomycosis. During the 18-year period, 3,089 coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths occurred among US residents. The overall age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.59 per 1 million person-years; 55,264 potential life-years were lost. Those at highest risk for death were men, persons >65 years, Hispanics, Native Americans, and residents of California or Arizona. Common concurrent conditions were HIV and other immunosuppressive conditions. The number of deaths from coccidioidomycosis might be greater than currently appreciated.
Jennifer Y Huang; Benjamin Bristow; Shira Shafir; Frank Sorvillo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Historical Article; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Emerging infectious diseases     Volume:  18     ISSN:  1080-6059     ISO Abbreviation:  Emerging Infect. Dis.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-24     Completed Date:  2013-04-11     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9508155     Medline TA:  Emerg Infect Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1723-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Coccidioidomycosis / epidemiology,  history,  mortality*
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
United States / epidemiology,  ethnology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Emerg Infect Dis
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Emerging Infect. Dis
Journal ID (publisher-id): EID
ISSN: 1080-6040
ISSN: 1080-6059
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Article Information
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Print publication date: Month: 11 Year: 2012
Volume: 18 Issue: 11
First Page: 1723 Last Page: 1728
PubMed Id: 23092645
ID: 3559166
Publisher Id: 12-0752
DOI: 10.3201/eid1811.120752

Coccidioidomycosis-associated Deaths, United States, 1990–2008 Alternate Title:Coccidioidomycosis-associated Deaths, United States
Jennifer Y. Huang1
Benjamin Bristow
Shira Shafir
Frank Sorvillo
Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA (J.Y. Huang);
and University of California Los Angeles Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles (B. Bristow, S. Shafir, F. Sorvillo)

Medscape CME Activity

Medscape, LLC is pleased to provide online continuing medical education (CME) for this journal article, allowing clinicians the opportunity to earn CME credit.

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of Medscape, LLC and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Medscape, LLC designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

All other clinicians completing this activity will be issued a certificate of participation. To participate in this journal CME activity: (1) review the learning objectives and author disclosures; (2) study the education content; (3) take the post-test with a 70% minimum passing score and complete the evaluation at; (4) view/print certificate.

Release date: October 19, 2012; Expiration date: October 19, 2013

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  • Assess the epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis
  • Evaluate the transmission and clinical course of coccidioidomycosis
  • Analyze demographic risk factors for mortality in cases of coccidioidomycosis
  • Distinguish comorbid conditions associated with a higher risk of mortality in cases of coccidioidomycosis

CME Editor

P. Lynne Stockton, VMD, MS, ELS(D), Technical Writer/Editor, Emerging Infectious Diseases. Disclosure: P. Lynne Stockton, VMD, MS, ELS(D), has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

CME Author

Charles P. Vega, MD, Health Sciences Clinical Professor; Residency Director, Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Irvine. Disclosure: Charles P. Vega, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.


Disclosures:Jennifer Y. Huang, MPH; Benjamin Bristow, MD, MPH; Shira Shafir, PhD, MPH;andFrank Sorvillo, PhD,have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.


Suggested citation for this article: Huang JY, Bristow B, Shafir S, Sorvillo F. Coccidioidomycosis-associated deaths, United States, 1990–2008. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2012 Nov [date cited].

1Current affiliation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Article Categories:
  • CME
Article Categories:
  • Research
Article Categories:
  • Research

Keywords: Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, mortality, United States, fungi, deaths, Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioides posadasii, Coccidioides spp.

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