Document Detail

Cocaine use among heroin users in Spain: the diffusion of crack and cocaine smoking. Spanish Group for the Study on the Route of Administration of Drugs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9616422     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and patterns of use of crack and cocaine hydrochloride among heroin users in Spain. To explore if the expansion of heroin smoking is accompanied by a similar phenomenon for cocaine. DESIGN: Cross sectional study in 1995. Face to face interviews using a structured questionnaire. SETTING: Three cities with different prevalences of heroin use by smoking: high (Seville), intermediate (Madrid), and low (Barcelona). PARTICIPANTS: 909 heroin users, 452 in treatment and 457 out of treatment. MAIN RESULTS: Last month prevalence of crack use was 62.3% in Seville, 19.4% in Madrid, and 7.7% in Barcelona. Most users in Madrid (86.5%) and Barcelona (100%) generally prepared their own crack, usually with ammonia as alkali; in Seville most users (69.7%) bought preprocessed crack. The proportion of users who began taking cocaine (crack or cocaine hydrochloride) by smoking has increased progressively since the seventies, rising to 74.1% in Seville, 61.5% in Madrid, and 28% in Barcelona in 1992-1995, with the earliest increase in Seville. The factors associated with crack use were: residence in Seville (odds ratio (OR) = 16.3), cocaine hydrochloride use mainly by smoking (OR = 5.0), by sniffing (OR = 2.7) or by injecting (OR = 2.5), heroin use mainly by smoking (OR = 2.8) and weekly use of cannabis (OR = 1.9). CONCLUSIONS: In Spain smoking cocaine may be progressively diffusing from the south west to the north east, similar to what has happened with smoking heroin, but beginning later in time. The factors associated with smoking cocaine are basically ecological or cultural in nature (characteristics of the available drugs and the main route of heroin administration in each city).
G Barrio; L De la Fuente; L Royuela; A Díaz; F Rodríguez-Artalejo
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of epidemiology and community health     Volume:  52     ISSN:  0143-005X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Epidemiol Community Health     Publication Date:  1998 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-06-25     Completed Date:  1998-06-25     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7909766     Medline TA:  J Epidemiol Community Health     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  172-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas-DGPNSD, Madrid, Spain.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Administration, Inhalation
Crack Cocaine*
Cross-Sectional Studies
Heroin Dependence / epidemiology
Injections, Intravenous
Middle Aged
Smoking / epidemiology*
Spain / epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Crack Cocaine; 50-36-2/Cocaine; 561-27-3/Heroin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: results from The Netherlands Cohort Study.
Next Document:  Vitamins, selenium, iron, and coronary heart disease risk in Indians, Malays, and Chinese in Singapo...