Document Detail

Cocaine-induced cerebral vasoconstriction differs as a function of sex and menstrual cycle phase.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11331085     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Chronic cocaine abusing women experience fewer cerebral perfusion defects and less neuronal injury than men with comparable drug use histories. This study assessed whether a basis for this discrepancy is a sex difference in cocaine's acute cerebrovascular effects.
METHODS: The subjects in this study were 13 healthy and neurologically normal women, reporting occasional cocaine (mean 13, range 1-40 lifetime cocaine exposures). All subjects were administered cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) intravenously, during both the follicular (days 3-8) and luteal (days 18-24) menstrual cycle phases. Dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging assessments of relative global cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes were conducted on both study days, 10 min after cocaine administration.
RESULTS: Cocaine did not alter CBV in follicular phase women, but reduced luteal phase CBV by 10%, indicative of vasoconstriction (analysis of variance [ANOVA], F = 5.1, p <.05). Postcocaine CBV was lower in men administered the drug via an identical protocol relative to follicular phase women (ANOVA, F = 5.4, p <.04). Postcocaine CBV was also lower in the male referent group relative to luteal phase women, but this difference did not achieve statistical significance. No measurable sex or menstrual cycle phase differences in cocaine's cardiovascular effects were noted.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest both menstrual cycle phase and sex differences in cocaine's acute cerebrovascular effects, which may contribute to sex differences in the severity of brain dysfunction found in chronic cocaine abusers. These findings imply that gonadal steroids or the factors they modulate merit study as possible therapeutic agents for reducing cocaine-induced cerebrovascular disorders.
M J Kaufman; J M Levin; L C Maas; T J Kukes; R A Villafuerte; K Dostal; S E Lukas; J H Mendelson; B M Cohen; P F Renshaw
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biological psychiatry     Volume:  49     ISSN:  0006-3223     ISO Abbreviation:  Biol. Psychiatry     Publication Date:  2001 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-05-10     Completed Date:  2001-08-23     Revised Date:  2013-01-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213264     Medline TA:  Biol Psychiatry     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  774-81     Citation Subset:  IM    
Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Volume / physiology
Brain / anatomy & histology,  blood supply*
Cocaine / blood,  pharmacology*
Contrast Media
Heterocyclic Compounds / diagnostic use
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Menstrual Cycle / physiology*
Organometallic Compounds / diagnostic use
Sex Factors
Single-Blind Method
Time Factors
Vasoconstriction / drug effects*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Contrast Media; 0/Heterocyclic Compounds; 0/Organometallic Compounds; 0199MV609F/gadoteridol; 50-36-2/Cocaine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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