Document Detail

Closure of the arteriotomy after carotid endarterectomy: patch type is related to intraoperative microemboli and restenosis rate.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16376195     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Patch closure after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) improves clinical outcome compared with primary closure. Whether there are differences in outcome between various patch materials is still not clear. The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the patch type and the number of microemboli as registered during CEA by transcranial Doppler imaging, the clinical outcome (transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident), and the occurrence of restenosis.
METHODS: We included 319 patients who underwent CEA. Intraoperative microembolus registration was performed in 205 procedures. Microembolization was recorded during four different periods: dissection, shunting, clamp release, and wound closure. The decision to perform primary closure or to use a patch for the closure of the arteriotomy was made by the surgeon, and Dacron patches were used when venous material was insufficient. Cerebral events were recorded within the first month after CEA, and duplex scanning was performed at 3 months (n = 319) and 1 year (n = 166) after CEA. A diameter reduction of more than 70% was defined as restenosis.
RESULTS: Primary, venous, and Dacron patch closures were performed in 83 (26.0%), 171 (53.6%), and 65 (20.4%) patients, respectively. Primary closure was significantly related to sex (Dacron patch, 35 men and 30 women; venous patch, 108 men and 63 women; primary closure, 72 men and 11 women; P < .001). The occurrence of microemboli during wound closure was also related to sex (women, 2.5 +/- 0.6; men, 1.0 +/- 0.2; P = .01). Additionally, during clamp release, Dacron patches were associated with significantly more microemboli than venous patches (11.1 +/- 3.4 vs 4.0 +/- 0.9; P < .01), and this difference was also noted during wound closure (3.1 +/- 0.9 vs 1.4 +/- 0.4; P < .05). Transient ischemic attacks and minor strokes after CEA occurred in 5 (2.4%) of 205 and 6 (2.9%) of 205 procedures, respectively, and the degree of microembolization during dissection was related to adverse cerebral events (P = .003). In contrast, the type of closure was not related to immediate clinical adverse events. However, primary closure and Dacron patches were associated with an increase in the restenosis rate compared with venous patches: after 400 days, the restenosis rate for Primary closure was 11%, Dacron patch 16%, and venous patch 7% (P = .05; Kaplan-Meier estimates).
CONCLUSIONS: Microemboli are more prevalent during clamp releases and wound closure when Dacron patches are used. Additionally, the observed differences in embolization noted by patch type were mainly evident in women. However, the use of Dacron patches was not related to immediate ischemic cerebral events but was associated with a higher restenosis rate compared with venous patch closure. This suggests that venous patch closure may be preferred for CEA.
Bart A N Verhoeven; Gerard Pasterkamp; Jean-Paul P M de Vries; Rob G A Ackerstaff; Dominique de Kleijn; Bert C Eikelboom; Frans L Moll
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of vascular surgery     Volume:  42     ISSN:  0741-5214     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Vasc. Surg.     Publication Date:  2005 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-12-26     Completed Date:  2006-01-12     Revised Date:  2012-10-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8407742     Medline TA:  J Vasc Surg     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1082-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Aged, 80 and over
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects*,  instrumentation
Carotid Stenosis / diagnosis,  surgery*
Endarterectomy, Carotid / methods*
Follow-Up Studies
Graft Occlusion, Vascular / epidemiology,  etiology*,  ultrasonography
Intracranial Embolism / epidemiology,  etiology*,  ultrasonography
Intraoperative Complications
Middle Aged
Polyethylene Terephthalates / adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Saphenous Vein / transplantation
Sex Factors
Surgical Mesh / adverse effects
Treatment Outcome
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Polyethylene Terephthalates

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