Document Detail

Clinical signs and etiology of adverse reactions to procaine benzylpenicillin and sodium/potassium benzylpenicillin in horses.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17472651     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Case reports of 59 horses reacting adversely to procaine benzylpenicillin or to sodium or potassium benzylpenicillin in Sweden in 2003-2005 were obtained through contacts with horse-owners. For the assessment of the reports, various parameters were evaluated, such as the times to the reactions, information on previous penicillin treatment, the clinical signs and the actions taken in the reacting horses. Among the reports, two horses had received sodium or potassium benzylpenicillin intravenously, whereas the remaining 57 horses had been treated with procaine benzylpenicillin intramuscularly. Allergy may underlie the adverse reactions in the horses given sodium and potassium benzylpenicillin, and in a few of the horses given procaine benzylpenicillin. However, in most horses in the latter group, the clinical signs may be due to the toxic effects of procaine. In these horses, the dominating clinical signs were locomotor and behavioral changes. Some risk factors may enhance the probability that horses react to procaine. One is repeated injections, which increase the likelihood of intravascular administration and also may increase the sensitivity to procaine due to neuronal sensitization (kindling). Procaine is rapidly hydrolyzed by plasma esterases to nontoxic metabolites. When high amounts of procaine enter the circulation, the hydrolyzing capacity may be exceeded and toxicity occurs. Analyses of plasma esterases from reacting horses showed lower activity than in nonreacting control horses. Low esterase activity may increase the possibility of procaine toxicity and constitute another risk factor.
L Olsén; C Ingvast-Larsson; H Broström; P Larsson; H Tjälve
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics     Volume:  30     ISSN:  0140-7783     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther.     Publication Date:  2007 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-05-02     Completed Date:  2007-06-19     Revised Date:  2009-11-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7910920     Medline TA:  J Vet Pharmacol Ther     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  201-7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects*
Drug Hypersensitivity / epidemiology,  etiology,  veterinary*
Horse Diseases / blood,  chemically induced*,  epidemiology*,  pathology
Injections, Intravenous / veterinary
Penicillin G / adverse effects*
Penicillin G Procaine / adverse effects*
Sweden / epidemiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anti-Bacterial Agents; 61-33-6/Penicillin G; 6130-64-9/Penicillin G Procaine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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