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Clinical and histopathological characteristics of hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21042912     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: The clinical and pathological characteristics of hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis (HIHC) are incompletely described. The present study was designed to elucidate the nature and effects of HIHC in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy in our unit.
METHODS: A prospective database of 1,754 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) who underwent parathyroidectomy from 1991-2009 identified 67 (41 women) patients presenting with HIHC. Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis was defined as symptoms and signs of acute calcium intoxication with a concomitant total albumin corrected calcium level>13.5 mg/dl (range: 8.8-10.2 mg/dl). Clinical and pathological characteristics were evaluated. Data are expressed as mean±SEM.
RESULTS: Mean age at presentation was 56.7±2.2 years. Twenty-four of 67 patients (35%) required preoperative in-hospital management. Of these, all were treated with saline resuscitation, whereas 20/24 (83%) were treated pharmacologically. Neurocognitive derangements and nephrolithiasis with associated hematuria were the most common presenting symptoms and signs. Preoperative serum calcium and the intact parathyroid hormone level (PTH) were 14.0±0.19 mg/dl and 393±43 pg/ml (reference range: 12-65 pg/ml), respectively. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy under local cervical block was performed in 28/67 patients (42%); the remainder underwent standard cervical exploration. All patients had postoperative normalization of serum calcium and intact PTH. Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis was due to parathyroid carcinoma in 3/67 patients (4.5%), whereas the remainder of patients displayed a single parathyroid adenoma (n=57) or multiglandular hyperplasia (n=7). Histopathological evaluation from HIHC patients revealed a chief cell microcystic pattern in 15/21 (71.4%) of examined parathyroid tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Hyperparathyroidism-induced hypercalcemic crisis is most commonly due to a single parathyroid adenoma, often associated with a microcystic histopathological pattern. The condition is optimally managed with saline hydration and urgent parathyroidectomy.
Authors:
Lee F Starker; Peyman Björklund; Constantine Theoharis; William D Long; Tobias Carling; Robert Udelsman
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  World journal of surgery     Volume:  35     ISSN:  1432-2323     ISO Abbreviation:  World J Surg     Publication Date:  2011 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-01-07     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7704052     Medline TA:  World J Surg     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  331-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208062, New Haven, CT 06520-8062, USA.
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