Document Detail

The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA): a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17760988     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Pain in the hand affects an estimated 12-21% of the population, and at older ages the hand is one of the most common sites of pain and osteoarthritis. The association between symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and disability in everyday life has not been studied in detail, although there is evidence that older people with hand problems suffer significant pain and disability. Despite the high prevalence of hand problems and the limitations they cause in older adults, little attention has been paid to the hand by health planners and policy makers. We plan to conduct a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study designed in parallel with our previously reported cohort study of knee pain, to describe the course of musculoskeletal hand problems in older adults and investigate the relative merits of different approaches to classification and defining prognosis.
METHODS/DESIGN: All adults aged 50 years and over registered with two general practices in North Staffordshire will be invited to take part in a two-stage postal survey. Respondents to the survey who indicate that they have experienced hand pain or problems within the previous 12 months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed assessment. This will consist of clinical interview, hand assessment, screening test of lower limb function, digital photography, plain x-rays, anthropometric measurement and brief self-complete questionnaire. All consenting clinic attenders will be followed up by (i) general practice medical record review, (ii) repeat postal questionnaire at 18-months, and (iii) repeat postal questionnaire at 3 years.
DISCUSSION: This paper describes the protocol for the Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA), a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study of community-dwelling older adults with hand pain and hand problems based in North Staffordshire.
Authors:
Helen Myers; Elaine Nicholls; June Handy; George Peat; Elaine Thomas; Rachel Duncan; Laurence Wood; Michelle Marshall; Catherine Tyson; Elaine Hay; Krysia Dziedzic
Related Documents :
10642468 - Classic papers in hand surgery.
21949038 - Biomarkers of inflammation, growth factor, and coagulation activation in patients with ...
14507498 - The chicago school of hand surgery.
24664788 - Somatosensory and vasomotor manifestations of individual and combined stimulation of tr...
21197308 - An open-label, non-randomized comparison of venlafaxine and gabapentin as monotherapy o...
24646388 - Relationship between bodily illusions and pain syndromes.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2007-08-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  BMC musculoskeletal disorders     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1471-2474     ISO Abbreviation:  BMC Musculoskelet Disord     Publication Date:  2007  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-10-05     Completed Date:  2007-10-23     Revised Date:  2014-02-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100968565     Medline TA:  BMC Musculoskelet Disord     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  85     Citation Subset:  IM    
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Cross-Sectional Studies
Hand*
Health Surveys*
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Musculoskeletal Diseases / epidemiology*,  physiopathology*
Osteoarthritis / epidemiology,  physiopathology
Pain / epidemiology,  physiopathology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
G0501798//Medical Research Council
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): BMC Musculoskelet Disord
ISSN: 1471-2474
Publisher: BioMed Central, London
Article Information
Download PDF
Copyright ? 2007 Myers et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
open-access: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Received Day: 25 Month: 7 Year: 2007
Accepted Day: 30 Month: 8 Year: 2007
collection publication date: Year: 2007
Electronic publication date: Day: 30 Month: 8 Year: 2007
Volume: 8First Page: 85 Last Page: 85
ID: 2000877
Publisher Id: 1471-2474-8-85
PubMed Id: 17760988
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-85

The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA): a prospective study of musculoskeletal hand problems in the general population
Helen Myers1 Email: h.l.myers@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Elaine Nicholls1 Email: e.nicholls@cphc.keele.ac.uk
June Handy1 Email: j.e.handy@cphc.keele.ac.uk
George Peat1 Email: g.m.peat@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Elaine Thomas1 Email: e.thomas@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Rachel Duncan1 Email: r.c.duncan@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Laurence Wood1 Email: l.r.j.wood@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Michelle Marshall1 Email: m.marshall@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Catherine Tyson2 Email: CatherineA.Tyson@northstaffs.nhs.uk
Elaine Hay1 Email: e.m.hay@cphc.keele.ac.uk
Krysia Dziedzic1 Email: k.s.dziedzic@cphc.keele.ac.uk
1Primary Care Musculoskeletal Research Centre, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
2North Staffordshire Combined Healthcare NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, ST2 8LD, UK

Background

Musculoskeletal diseases have a major impact on the health of the population [1]. In adults aged 50 years and over osteoarthritis (OA) is the cause of the majority of musculoskeletal pain and disability [2]. Although the projected increase in the proportion of older people in the population has propelled OA up the agenda of health planners and policy makers, the main focus of attention has been on lower limb OA. Less attention has been given to the hand, despite the fact that the prevalence of hand pain in the general population has been estimated between 12% and 21% [3-5] and at older ages the hand is one of the most common sites of pain and OA [6]. The relationship between symptomatic hand OA and disability in everyday life has not been studied in detail [7], and although there is some evidence that older people with hand problems suffer significant pain and disability [8] and psychological and emotional distress as a result of functional limitation [9], little is known about the specific ways in which these problems interfere with daily life, or how their impact varies with age, gender and pain severity. Although older people with hand problems view OA as a serious condition, the majority do not consult their general practitioner with their hand problem over the course of a year, even when severely affected [8].

Defining hand OA for epidemiological research and in clinical practice is problematic. Clinical criteria [10] and radiographic grading [11] for the classification of hand OA have been developed to establish uniformity in the reporting of this disease. However, population studies have shown that symptoms are only present in a minority of those with radiographic changes [12], suggesting that the clinical syndrome and the structural disease of OA appear to be separate, albeit related, entities. Consequently, it is doubtful whether the "true" prevalence of symptomatic hand OA can be captured from clinical or radiographic studies alone [10].

In North Staffordshire a programme of research into osteoarthritis in primary care is being undertaken. The programme comprises a series of linked studies designed to establish the optimal management of osteoarthritis in older adults in primary care. The clinical assessment studies are part of this programme and are prospective cohort studies whose main objective is to provide population-based evidence that will indicate the most useful way of assessing older adults with hand pain and problems and knee pain in primary care. The studies will provide primary care practitioners with a description of the population of older adults with hand pain and problems and knee pain in clinically meaningful terms i.e. using simple clinical history and examination techniques. Additionally, they should help to determine if clinical classification of musculoskeletal hand and knee conditions is useful at the population level and what simple questions and assessment tools identify important groups, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The aim of this paper is to outline the protocol for the Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA). The protocol for the Clinical Assessment Study (Knee) (CAS(K)) has been reported previously [13].

Cross sectional study

The general aim of the cross sectional component of the CAS-HA is to provide population-based evidence that will indicate the most useful way of assessing older adults with hand pain or hand problems in primary care. Additionally, we aim to identify clinical, functional and radiographic sub-groups within the study population. Specifically our study will consider the following questions:

? What is the prevalence of clinical signs and symptoms? How does this relate to hand function?

? What is the prevalence of 'red flags' indicative of possible serious joint pathology?

? In what respect do consulters and non-consulters differ at baseline?

? Can simple signs and symptoms accurately identify older adults with radiographic hand OA?

? What is the relationship between symptomatic hand OA and soft tissue syndromes e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome?

Longitudinal study

Accurate information on the likely course of hand pain and problems in this population will play an important role in deciding how best to manage these problems and may possibly help to inform preventative measures in the future. To address this we intend to establish a cohort at baseline that will be followed up at 18-month intervals (subject to further funding and ethical approval). The study is designed in accordance with previously published requirements for reporting longitudinal studies in rheumatology [14,15]. The general aim of the longitudinal component of the CAS-HA is to determine the course of hand pain and problems over time. Specifically, our study will address the following questions:

? How common is deterioration in terms of hand pain, hand problems and functional limitation? Can this be predicted?

? Does radiographic OA predict change in severity and characteristics of symptomatic hand OA?

? What proportion of this sample consult their general practitioner for hand pain or problems within the follow-up period? Can this be predicted by information collected at baseline?

? What is the relative contribution of clinical history, hand assessment, digital imaging, x-rays and lower limb function as prognostic markers?


Methods/Design

A population-based prospective observational cohort study of hand pain and problems in older people (50 years and over) has been designed in parallel to our previously reported cohort study of knee pain in older people [13]. The hand cohort study will be conducted in 5 phases with a sample of people, aged 50 years and over, registered with two local general practices (Figure 1). Ethical approval for CAS-HA baseline and 18-month follow up has been obtained from the North Staffordshire Local Research Ethics Committee. Ethical approval for 3-year follow up has been obtained from the Hereford and Worcester Local Research Ethics Committee.

Phase 1: Baseline two-stage mailed survey

Phase 2: Baseline clinical assessment study of the hand (CAS-HA)

Phase 3: Eighteen month prospective review of general practice medical records

Phase 4: Follow-up mailed survey at 18 months

Phase 5: Follow-up mailed survey at 3 years

Phase 1: Baseline two-stage mailed survey

Full details of Phase 1 design and methods have been previously reported [16]. Briefly, Phase 1 consists of a Health Survey questionnaire that will be mailed to all adults aged 50 years and over registered with the two participating practices. Respondents who provide written consent to further contact and who report pain or problems (e.g. stiffness or knobbly swellings) in the hands, or pain in the hips, knees or feet will be sent a second questionnaire (the Regional Pains Survey questionnaire). These two questionnaires include measures of general health status, socio-demographic characteristics, psychological and lifestyle variables, and pain and disability (general and site specific). Hand specific questions are provided in Table 1. Non-responders to each questionnaire will be sent a reminder postcard at two weeks and, for those who do not respond to the postcard, a repeat questionnaire at 4 weeks.

Phase 2: Baseline clinical assessment study of the hand (CAS-HA)

Respondents to the Regional Pains Survey questionnaire who report experiencing hand pain or problems within the last 12 months and who provide written consent to further contact will be sent a letter of invitation to the CAS-HA research clinic and an information sheet outlining the study. The process of recruiting participants and the practical organisation and running of the CAS-HA research clinic will follow the same procedures as those reported previously for CAS(K) [13]. Briefly, participants will be offered an appointment to attend the research clinic where they will be assessed by a trained research therapist after giving written, informed consent. Research clinics will be held at a local National Health Service Trust Hospital and will offer a maximum of 16 appointments per week.

Participants will undertake the following standardised assessment: digital photography of the hands, clinical interview and hand assessment, lower extremity function test, brief self-complete questionnaire, plain radiography of the hands and knees, and simple anthropometric measurement.

Digital photography of the hands

Each participant will have four photographs taken of their hands by an assessor using a digital camera (Olympus Camedia C-4040 ZOOM: resolution 2272 ? 1704 pixels) attached to a copy stand. The dorsal and palmar aspects of both hands, including the wrists, will be photographed. Photographs will be taken according to pre-defined written protocols that include standard positioning of participants.

Clinical interview and hand assessment

Participants will be interviewed and examined by a trained assessor blinded to the findings from radiography and digital photography. The proposed content of the interview and assessment is provided in Table 2. Briefly, this procedure will comprise two components. Firstly, participants will be screened to identify possible red flags indicative of potentially serious pathology, namely recent trauma to the hands likely to have resulted in significant tissue damage, and acutely swollen, painful hands or knees. Secondly, a structured, standardised clinical interview and hand assessment developed and piloted for the study will be conducted [17,18]. For assessments requiring instrumented measures, equipment will be calibrated prior to the start of the study.

Lower extremity function

The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) [19] will be conducted in all participants. This includes a standing balance test, a timed repeated chair stand test (5 repetitions) and a 4-metre gait speed test. The conduct and scoring of the SPPB will be as recommended on the training CD-ROM (Guralnik, personal communication).

Brief self-complete questionnaire

During the clinic visit, participants will complete a brief self-complete questionnaire containing questions relating to their hand problem (Table 2). Questions relating to knee problems will also be asked ? days of pain, aching or stiffness in previous month, days in pain in the previous 6 months [20], episode duration [21], the Chronic Pain Grade [22] and symptom satisfaction (adapted from [23]).

Radiography and anthropometric measurement

Radiography of both hands and knees will be obtained for all participants. Plain radiographs of each hand will be taken (1 hand per film). A posteroanterior (PA) view will be taken, where the palmar aspect of the hand will be placed on the film with the fingers extended, separated slightly and spaced evenly (Buckland-Wright, personal communication). Imaging of the tibiofemoral joint of the knee will be undertaken using weight-bearing semiflexed (MTP) posteroanterior (PA) view according to a defined protocol [24]. The patellofemoral joint of the knee will be imaged with the lateral and skyline view, both in a recumbent position with the knee flexed to 45?. Weight (kgs) and height (cms) of each participant will be measured using digital scales (Seca Ltd., Birmingham, UK) and a wall mounted height meter (Holtain Ltd., Crymych, UK) respectively.

Post-clinic procedure

The practical organisation, administration and communication post-clinic will be identical to that described by Peat et al [13], but with emphasis on the hand rather than the knee. A trained observer with a background in diagnostic radiography will score the hand radiographs. Standardised coding of radiographic features using the Kellgren and Lawrence [11] grading system will be completed for sixteen joints in each hand and wrist, the distal interphalangeal joints (DIP), the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP), the interphalangeal joint of the thumb (IP), the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP), the thumb carpometacarpal joint (CMC) and the trapezioscaphoid joint (TS). Knee films will be scored for individual radiographic features, including osteophytes, joint space narrowing, sclerosis and subluxation. The Altman Atlas [25] and scoring system [26] are to be used for the PA and skyline views and the Burnett Atlas [27] for the lateral view. Additionally, PA and skyline views will be assigned a Kellgren and Lawrence grade [11].

Quality assurance and quality control

Quality assurance and control are important in longitudinal studies especially when using observers to gather data [28]. In the current study, the clinical interview, hand assessment, lower limb screen, and the taking and scoring of radiographs will be subject to a number of quality assurance and control procedures.

The study protocol and inter- and intra-assessor reliability of the clinical interview and hand assessment have been formally tested in a pilot study [18]. Reliability studies investigating inter- and intra-observer reproducibility will be conducted for the scoring of radiographs.

All assessors will receive training using the study protocols prior to the commencement of data collection. Assessors will practice interviews and assessments using the protocols with healthy volunteers and expert participants. All radiographers participating in the study will also receive training prior to the start of the research clinics. A detailed assessor manual containing study protocols will be provided to all members of the CAS-HA team for reference during the study period. A programme of quality control measures previously reported [13] will be implemented throughout the course of the study.

Phase 3: Prospective review of general practice medical records

All participants in Phase 1 who give written consent for their GP records to be accessed will have their computerised medical records tagged by a member of the Centre's Health Informatics team. The protocol for this phase of the study has been previously reported [13].

Phase 4 and 5: Follow-up mailed survey at 18 months and 3 years

A follow-up survey will be mailed to all Phase 2 participants 18 months and 3 years after their baseline clinical assessment. The focus of follow-up will be on clinical change in symptoms and function and possible determinants of this. The proposed content of these surveys is provided in Tables 1, 2, 3. Primary outcome data will be sought from non-respondents by telephone or post. Participants who have moved practice during the follow-up period will be traced using the NHS tracing service and their new general practitioner will be asked for permission to include them in the follow-up.

Sample size

The sample size for this study was determined by the estimated numbers of participants needed in Phase 2 to ensure sufficient power for both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. A target sample of 500 was set. We estimate that 90% of follow-up questionnaires will be returned and that approximately 70 participants (12%) will report clinically significant deterioration over the 18-month period [29]. With this number of participants, we will have 80% power to detect a risk ratio of 1.6 or greater with a minimum 64% exposure rate (e.g. presence of radiographic OA) in those who have deteriorated, and a 50% exposure rate in those who do not, at 95% level of confidence.

Statistical analysis

Linking data collected at the clinical assessment with that from the 18-month and 3-year follow-up questionnaires, we will be able to determine prospectively the factors that are related to clinical deterioration using risk ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals.


Discussion

The Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand (CAS-HA) is a prospective, population-based, observational cohort study based in North Staffordshire that intends to investigate issues surrounding the classification and course of hand pain, problems and hand osteoarthritis in community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and over. This study will complement our previous study on knee pain in older people [13].


Abbreviations

AIMS2, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2; AUSCAN, AUStralian CANadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index; CAS-HA, Clinical Assessment Study of the Hand; CAS(K), Clinical Assessment Study of the Knee; CMC, carpometacarpal; CSQ, Coping Strategies Questionnaire; DIP, distal interphalangeal; GP, General Practitioner; IP, interphalangeal; IPQ-R, Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised; MCP, metacarpophalangeal; MTP, metatarsophalangeal; OA, Osteoarthritis; PA, posteroanterior; PIP, proximal interphalangeal; SPPB, Short Physical Performance Battery; TS, trapezioscaphoid.


Competing interests

The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.


Authors' contributions

All authors participated in the design of the study and drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Pre-publication history

The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:


Acknowledgements

This study is supported financially by a Programme Grant awarded by the Medical Research Council, UK (Grant Code: G9900220) and by Support for Science funding secured by North Staffordshire Primary Care Research Consortium for NHS service support costs. KD was supported by a grant from the Arthritis Research Campaign.

The authors would like to thank the administrative and health informatics staff at Keele University's Primary Care Musculoskeletal Research Centre, especially Charlotte Clements, staff of the participating general practices and Haywood Hospital, especially Dr Jackie Saklatvala, Carole Jackson and the Radiographers at the Department of Radiography, and Carol Graham and Nikki Edwards at the Department of Occupational Therapy. The authors would like to thank the following for permission to use published measures at baseline: Prof N Bellamy (AUSCAN), Dr K Chung (Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire), Prof M Doherty (finger nodes drawings), Prof R Meenan (AIMS2), Prof D Symmons (hand pain drawings), and Prof J Weinman (IPQ-R). The authors gratefully acknowledge the advice and permission to use the SPPB training CD-ROM from Dr Jack Guralnik. We also gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Prof Chris Buckland-Wright for advice and training for the x-ray protocols.


References
Woolf AD,Pfleger B. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditionsBull World Health Organ 2003;81:646–656. [pmid: 14710506]
Zhang Y,Niu J,Kelly-Hayes M,Chaisson CE,Aliabadi P,Felson DT. Prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and its impact on functional status among the elderly: The Framingham StudyAm J Epidemiol 2002;156:1021–1027. [pmid: 12446258] [doi: 10.1093/aje/kwf141]
Urwin M,Symmons D,Allison T,Brammah T,Busby H,Roxby M,Simmons A,Williams G. Estimating the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the community: the comparative prevalence of symptoms at different anatomical sites, and the relation to social deprivationAnn Rheum Dis 1998;57:649–655. [pmid: 9924205]
Walker-Bone K,Palmer KT,Reading I,Coggon D,Cooper C. Prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb in the general populationArthritis Rheum 2004;51:642–651. [pmid: 15334439] [doi: 10.1002/art.20535]
Dahaghin S,Bierma-Zeinstra SM,Reijman M,Pols HA,Hazes JM,Koes BW. Prevalence and determinants of one month hand pain and hand related disability in the elderly (Rotterdam study)Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:99–104. [pmid: 15608306] [doi: 10.1136/ard.2003.017087]
Buckwalter JA,Martin J,Mankin HJ. Synovial joint degeneration and the syndrome of osteoarthritisInstr Course Lect 2000;49:481–489. [pmid: 10829201]
Maheu E,Dreiser RL,Lequesne M. Methodology of clinical trials in hand osteoarthritis. Issues and proposalsRev Rhum Engl Ed 1995;62:55S–62S. [pmid: 7583183]
Dziedzic K,Thomas E,Hill S,Wilkie R,Peat G,Croft P. The impact of musculoskeletal hand problems in older adults : the findings from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP)Rheumatology 2007;46:963–967. [pmid: 17329350] [doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kem005]
Hill S,Ong BN,Choi KS,Dziedzic KS. The impact of hand osteoarthritis on the individual [abstract]Rheumatology 2004;43:s153. [doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keg150]
Altman R,Alarcon G,Appelrouth D,Bloch D,Borenstein D,Brandt K,Brown C,Cooke TD,Daniel W,Gray R,Greenwald R,Hochberg M,Howell D,Ike R,Kapila P,Kaplan D,Koopman W,Longley S,McShane DJ,Medsger T,Michel B,Murphy W,Osial T,Ramsey-Goldman R,Rothschild B,Stark K,Wolfe R. The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the handArthritis Rheum 1990;33:1601–1610. [pmid: 2242058] [doi: 10.1002/art.1780331101]
Kellgren JH,Lawrence JS. Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosisAnn Rheum Dis 1957;16:494–502. [pmid: 13498604]
Cicuttini FM,Spector TD. The epidemiology of osteoarthritis of the handRev Rhum Engl Ed 1995;62:3S–8S. [pmid: 7583180]
Peat G,Thomas E,Handy J,Wood L,Dziedzic K,Myers H,Wilkie R,Duncan R,Hay E,Hill J,Croft P. The Knee Clinical Assessment Study ? CAS(K). A prospective study of knee pain and knee osteoarthritis in the general populationBMC Musculoskelet Disord 2004;5:4. [pmid: 15028109] [doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-5-4]
Silman A,Symmons D. Reporting requirements for longitudinal observational studies in rheumatologyJ Rheumatol 1999;26:481–483. [pmid: 9972991]
Wolfe F,Lassere M,van der Heijde D,Stucki G,Suarez-Almazor M,Pincus T,Eberhardt K,Kvien TK,Symmonds D,Silman A,van Riel P,Tugwell P,Boers M. Preliminary core set of domains and reporting requirements for longitudinal observational studies in rheumatologyJ Rheumatol 1999;26:484–489. [pmid: 9972992]
Thomas E,Wilkie R,Peat G,Hill S,Dziedzic K,Croft P. The North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project ? NorStOP: prospective, 3-year study of the epidemiology and management of clinical osteoarthritis in a general population of older adultsBMC Musculoskelet Disord 2004;5:2. [pmid: 14718062] [doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-5-2]
Myers H,Dziedzic K,Thomas E,Hay E,Croft P. The development of a hand assessment for clinical research: A consensus study using a modified Delphi approach [abstract]Rheumatology 2004;43:s154. [doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh245]
Myers H,Dziedzic K,Thomas E,Hay E,Croft P. Classifying hand OA in a population of older people: A reliability study [abstract]Rheumatology 2005;44:s14. [doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keh589]
Guralnik JM,Simonsick EM,Ferrucci L,Glynn RJ,Berkman LF,Blazer DG,Scherr PA,Wallace RB. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admissionJ Gerontol 1994;49:M85–M94. [pmid: 8126356]
Von KM,Jensen MP,Karoly P. Assessing global pain severity by self-report in clinical and health services researchSpine 2000;25:3140–3151. [pmid: 11124730] [doi: 10.1097/00007632-200012150-00009]
de Vet HC,Heymans MW,Dunn KM,Pope DP,van der Beek AJ,Macfarlane GJ,Bouter LM,Croft PR. Episodes of low back pain: a proposal for uniform definitions to be used in researchSpine 2002;27:2409–2416. [pmid: 12438991] [doi: 10.1097/00007632-200211010-00016]
Von KM,Ormel J,Keefe FJ,Dworkin SF. Grading the severity of chronic painPain 1992;50:133–149. [pmid: 1408309] [doi: 10.1016/0304-3959(92)90154-4]
Cherkin DC,Deyo RA,Street JH,Barlow W. Predicting poor outcomes for back pain seen in primary care using patients' own criteriaSpine 1996;21:2900–2907. [pmid: 9112715] [doi: 10.1097/00007632-199612150-00023]
Buckland-Wright JC,Wolfe F,Ward RJ,Flowers N,Hayne C. Substantial superiority of semiflexed (MTP) views in knee osteoarthritis: a comparative radiographic study, without fluoroscopy, of standing extended, semiflexed (MTP), and schuss viewsJ Rheumatol 1999;26:2664–2674. [pmid: 10606380]
Altman RD,Hochberg M,Murphy WA Jr,Wolfe F,Lequesne M. Atlas of individual radiographic features in osteoarthritisOsteoarthritis Cartilage 1995;3:3–70. [pmid: 8581752]
Altman RD,Fries JF,Bloch DA,Carstens J,Cooke TD,Genant H,Gofton P,Groth H,McShane DJ,Murphy WA. Radiographic assessment of progression in osteoarthritisArthritis Rheum 1987;30:1214–1225. [pmid: 3689459] [doi: 10.1002/art.1780301103]
Burnett S,Hart D,Cooper C,Spector T. A radiographic atlas of osteoarthritis. 1994London: Springer-Verlag;
Whitney CW,Lind BK,Wahl PW. Quality assurance and quality control in longitudinal studiesEpidemiol Rev 1998;20:71–80. [pmid: 9762510]
Elliott AM,Smith BH,Hannaford PC,Smith WC,Chambers WA. The course of chronic pain in the community: results of a 4-year follow-up studyPain 2002;99:299–307. [pmid: 12237208] [doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(02)00138-0]
Meenan RF,Mason JH,Anderson JJ,Guccione AA,Kazis LE. AIMS2. The content and properties of a revised and expanded Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales Health Status QuestionnaireArthritis Rheum 1992;35:1–10. [pmid: 1731806] [doi: 10.1002/art.1780350102]
Ferry S,Pritchard T,Keenan J,Croft P,Silman AJ. Estimating the prevalence of delayed median nerve conduction in the general populationBr J Rheumatol 1998;37:630–635. [pmid: 9667616] [doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/37.6.630]
O'Reilly S,Johnson S,Doherty S,Muir K,Doherty M. Screening for hand osteoarthritis (OA) using a postal surveyOsteoarthritis Cartilage 1999;7:461–465. [pmid: 10489318] [doi: 10.1053/joca.1999.0240]
Chung KC,Pillsbury MS,Walters MR,Hayward RA. Reliability and validity testing of the Michigan Hand Outcomes QuestionnaireJ Hand Surg [Am] 1998;23:575–587. [pmid: 9708370] [doi: 10.1016/S0363-5023(98)80042-7]
Bellamy N,Campbell J,Haraoui B,Gerecz-Simon E,Buchbinder R,Hobby K,MacDermid JC. Clinimetric properties of the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index: an evaluation of reliability, validity and responsivenessOsteoarthritis Cartilage 2002;10:863–869. [pmid: 12435331] [doi: 10.1053/joca.2002.0838]
Moss-Morris R,Weinman J,Petrie KJ,Horne R,Cameron LD,Buick D. The revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R)Psychology & Health 2002;17:1–16. [doi: 10.1080/08870440290001494]
Jinks C,Lewis M,Ong BN,Croft P. A brief screening tool for knee pain in primary care. 1. Validity and reliabilityRheumatology (Oxford) 2001;40:528–536. [pmid: 11371661] [doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/40.5.528]
Melzack R. The short-form McGill Pain QuestionnairePain 1987;30:191–197. [pmid: 3670870] [doi: 10.1016/0304-3959(87)91074-8]
Clinical Assessment of the Musculoskeletal System : A Handbook for Medical Students
Kapandji IA. Clinical evaluation of the thumb's oppositionJ Hand Ther 1992;2:102–106.
Cailliet R. Hand Pain and Impairment (4). 19944. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company;
Boyling J. Salter M, Cheshire LThe prevention and management of occupational hand disordersHand Therapy: Principles and Practice 2000Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; :211–225.
Lister G. The Hand: Diagnosis and Indications (2). 19782. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone;
Aulicino P. Hunter J, Mackin E, Callahan AClinical Examination of the HandRehabilitation of the Hand: Surgery and Therapy 1995St Louis: Mosby; :53–75.
Simpson C. Hand Assessment: A clinical guide for therapists (1st). 20021st. Wiltshire: APS Publishing;
Dellhag B,Bjelle A. A Grip Ability Test for use in rheumatology practiceJ Rheumatol 1995;22:1559–1565. [pmid: 7473483]
Mathiowetz V,Weber K,Volland G,Kashman N. Reliability and validity of grip and pinch strength evaluationsJ Hand Surg [Am] 1984;9:222–226. [pmid: 6715829]
Dunn KM,Croft PR. Classification of low back pain in primary care: using "bothersomeness" to identify the most severe casesSpine 2005;30:1887–1892. [pmid: 16103861] [doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000173900.46863.02]
van der Windt DA,Koes BW,Deville W,Boeke AJ,de Jong BA,Bouter LM. Effectiveness of corticosteroid injections versus physiotherapy for treatment of painful stiff shoulder in primary care: randomised trialBMJ 1998;317:1292–1296. [pmid: 9804720]
Jensen MP,Keefe FJ,Lefebvre JC,Romano JM,Turner JA. One- and two-item measures of pain beliefs and coping strategiesPain 2003;104:453–469. [pmid: 12927618] [doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(03)00076-9]

Figures

[Figure ID: F1]
Figure 1 

Flowchart of study procedures. Data collection points are in shaded boxes.



Tables
[TableWrap ID: T1] Table 1 

Hand specific data to be collected at baseline (Regional Pains Survey Questionnaire)


Concept Measurement method Details
Characteristic of complaint Hand dominance right, left, both
Duration of hand problem years/months
Hand problem in past 12 months*? yes, no
Hand pain in past 12 months*? yes, no
Side of pain in past 12 months*? right, left, both
Duration of pain in past 12 months*? < 7 days, 1?4 weeks, 1?3 months, 3+months
Most problematic hand*? right, left, both
Hand pain, symptoms and physical features AIMS 2*? [30] pain sub-scale
AUSCAN*? [34] pain and stiffness sub-scales
In past month, severity of stiffness, aching, tenderness, weakness, clumsiness, burning, tingling, numbness *? severe, moderate, mild, very mild, none
In past month, days of joint warmth, dropping objects, frustration *? all, most, some, few, no
Hand pain lasting ? 1 day in past month*?? yes, no
Painful areas in last month: hand drawings [31]*? shaded areas
Nodes: hand drawings*? [32] circled joints
Aesthetics Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire? [33] appearance sub-scale
Function AIMS 2*?? [30] hand and finger function sub-scale
AIMS 2? [30] arm function sub-scale
AUSCAN*? [34] physical function sub-scale
Difficulty with usual activities: pick up coins, hold book, clench fist, self-care, open packets no, mild, moderate, severe, unable to do
Illness perceptions Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R) [35] 9 dimensions: illness coherence, treatment control, personal control, timeline (acute/chronic), timeline (cyclical), consequences, emotional representation, identity, causes
Health care related to hand problem AIMS 2*? [30] medication sub-scale
Hand injuries ... ever yes, no: right, left, both
Hand operations ... ever yes, no: right, left, both
Consulted GP in past 12 months? yes, no
NHS and private services used in past 12 months? (adapted from [36]) yes, no to physiotherapy, occupational therapy, hospital specialist, acupuncture, osteopath/chiropractor, drugs on prescription, hand operation, hand injection, other
Occupational impact Excessive use of hands in occupation yes, no
Pastimes and hobbies Excessive use of hands in pastimes and hobbies yes, no
Impact of symptoms AIMS 2*? [30] impact subscale

*Also gathered at 18 months; ? Also gathered at 3 years; ? Minimum data to be sought at 18 months and 3 years from non-responders


[TableWrap ID: T2] Table 2 

Hand specific data to be collected during clinical assessment (CAS-HA)


Concept Measurement method Details
Clinical Interview Questions:

Characteristic of complaint Duration of hand problem < 12 months, 1-<5 years, 5-<10 years, 10 years +
Onset: sudden, gradual yes, no, for right and left hands
Onset: following accident or injury yes, no, for right and left hands
Hand pain and hand symptoms Pain/tenderness in past month yes, no
Hand pain descriptors from McGill Pain Questionnaire? [37] 15 descriptors
Pain location: hand drawing shading both hands front and back
Pain present all the time yes, no
Pain related to sleep disturbance yes, no
Pain limits activity yes, no
Hand stiffness in past month yes, no
Side of stiffness right, left, both
Hand stiffness on waking in past month yes, no
Duration of morning stiffness ? 30 mins, 30+ mins
Finger locking, triggering yes, no
Release of locking yes, no
Altered sensation (pins + needles, tingling, numbness) in past month yes, no
Altered sensation location: hand drawing shading both hands front and back
Altered sensation worse at night yes, no
Occupational impact Stop work due to hand problem yes, no
Absence from work due to hand problem yes, no
Management/self-help Adaptation: gadgets, help, avoidance, change method, stop/reduce activity, take longer, other yes, no
17 treatments/self-help activities tried recently yes, no
Any treatments effective yes, no
Family history of joint problems Relatives with joint problems: father, mother, brother, sister yes, no
Hand involvement yes, no
Diagnostic and causal attributions Open-ended questions free text
Health problems Open-ended question: 2 most important health problems free text

Hand Assessment (right and left hands):

Upper limb screen 9 movements (adapted from [38]) yes, no, unable to assess
Observation/Palpation Swelling, nodes, bony enlargement, deformity at selected joints yes, no
Thenar muscle wasting yes, no
Dupuytren's yes, no
Measurement Thumb opposition [39] yes, no, for 10 positions
Thumb extension degrees
Wrist extension degrees
Wrist flexion degrees
Tests Phalen's [40,41] positive, negative, unable to assess
Grind [42,43] positive, negative, unable to assess
Finklestein's [42,44] positive, negative, unable to assess
Hand function Grip Ability Test [45] timed (seconds)
Power grip (JAMAR dynomometer) [46] lbs
Pinch grip (B&L pinch gauge) [46] lbs

Brief self-complete questionnaire:

Hand pain and hand symptoms Days of hand pain, ache or stiffness in past month*? [10] all, most, some, few, no
Severity of hand pain in past month*? numerical rating scale (0?10)
Thumb pain during activity in past month*? yes, no
Swelling in hands in past month yes, no
Impact of symptoms Severity of overall hand problems in past month*? none, very mild, mild, moderate, severe
Bothersomeness of hand problem in past 2 weeks*? (adapted from [47]) not at all, slightly, moderately, very much, extremely
Symptom satisfaction*? (adapted from [23]) 5-point Likert scale: very dissatisfied to very satisfied

*Also gathered at 18 months; ? Also gathered at 3 years; ? Minimum data to be sought at 18 months and 3 years from non-responders


[TableWrap ID: T3] Table 3 

Hand specific data to be collected only at 18 months and 3 years


Concept Measurement method Details
Perceived change in hand problem since baseline Transition index [48]? completely recovered, much better, better, no change, worse, much worse
Health care related to hand problem since baseline Hand injury yes, no
Hand operation yes, no
Consulted GP in past 18 months? yes, no
NHS and private services used in past 18 months? (adapted from [36]) yes, no to physiotherapy, occupational therapy, hospital specialist, acupuncture, osteopath/chiropractor, drugs on prescription, hand operation, hand injection, other
Occupational impact since baseline Time off work yes, no
Stopped work yes, no
Hand pain and hand symptoms Days of hand swelling in past month all, most, some, few, no
Days of hand pain in past 6 months^ [22] no, 1?30, 31?89, 90+ days
Hand pain severity in past 6 months^ numerical rating scale (1?10)
Coping strategies for hand pain Single-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) [49] numerical rating scale (0?7) with verbal anchors (never do that, always do that)
Illness perceptions Shortened version adapted from IPQ-R [35] 6 dimensions: illness coherence, personal control, timeline (acute/chronic), timeline (cyclical), consequences, emotional representation
Management/self-help 7 treatments/self-help activities tried in past month: simple painkiller; anti-inflammatory tablets; creams, gels, or rubs; glucosamine or chondroitin sulphate; warmth, heat; cold; hand exercises yes, no
Narrative account Open-ended question: course of hand pain and problems? free text

? Minimum data to be sought at 18 months and 3 years from non-responders; ?Data only gathered at 18 months; ^Data only gathered at 3 years



Article Categories:
  • Study Protocol


Previous Document:  PKC epsilon and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration are necessary for PGF2 alpha to i...
Next Document:  Measuring perinatal complications: methodologic issues related to gestational age.