Document Detail

Classification of adult patients with type 2 diabetes using the Temperament and Character Inventory.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18588587     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: Adult patients with type 2 diabetes were classified using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). This classification was used to propose effective therapeutic approaches based on subtypes of psychological characteristics. METHODS: The TCI and various psychological tests were administered to 89 patients (54 men and 35 women). Cluster analysis was performed using three temperament factors of the TCI as variables for subclassification: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). RESULTS: The patients were divided into two clusters based on the TCI results. Cluster 1 had a low NS/high HA/low RD pattern, which indicated resistance to change and lack of cooperativeness, and results of other tests indicated that patients in cluster 1 were obsessional and had weak intention and personality disorder symptoms. In contrast, cluster 2 had a high NS/low HA/high RD pattern, indicating a socially active person who easily becomes dependent on others, and results of other tests indicated that these patients were histrionic and less anxious. In cluster 1 there was a significant negative correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and SD-1 (TCI self-directedness) 'responsibility' and a significant positive correlation between HbA1c and State anxiety of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In cluster 2 there was a significant positive correlation between HbA1c and HA-2 'fear of uncertainty'. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes were classified using the TCI into two subgroups. These two groups differed in psychological characteristics and had a different pattern in correlation with glycemic control.
Noriko Yoda; Tatsuhisa Yamashita; Yoshihisa Wada; Michiaki Fukui; Goji Hasegawa; Naoto Nakamura; Kenji Fukui
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences     Volume:  62     ISSN:  1440-1819     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.     Publication Date:  2008 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-06-30     Completed Date:  2008-09-02     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9513551     Medline TA:  Psychiatry Clin Neurosci     Country:  Australia    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  279-85     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Glucose / metabolism
Diabetes Complications / blood,  psychology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood,  psychology*
Exploratory Behavior
Harm Reduction
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated / metabolism
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance / psychology
Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Self Care / psychology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Blood Glucose; 0/Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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