Document Detail

Ciguatera: a public health perspective.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19782098     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of fish that have accumulated lipid-soluble ciguatoxins. In the United States, ciguatera is responsible for the highest reported incidence of food-borne illness outbreaks attributed to finfish, and it is reported to hold this distinction globally. Ciguatoxins traverse the marine food web from primary producers, Gambierdiscus spp., to commonly consumed fish in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ciguatoxins comprise 12 known congeners among Caribbean and tropical Atlantic fish and 29 reported congeners among Pacific fish. Expanding trade in fisheries from ciguatera-endemic regions contributes to wider distribution and increasing frequency of disease among seafood consumers in non-endemic regions. Ciguatoxins produce a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiological symptoms. Treatment options are very limited and supportive in nature. Information derived from the study of ciguatera outbreaks has improved clinical recognition, confirmation, and timely treatment. Such studies are equally important for the differentiation of ciguatoxin profiles in fish from one region to the next, the determination of toxicity thresholds in humans, and the formulation of safety limits. Analytical information from case and outbreak investigations was used to derive Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxin threshold contamination rates for adverse effects in seafood consumers. To these threshold estimates 10-fold safety factors were applied to address individual human risk factors; uncertainty in the amount of fish consumed; and analytical accuracy. The studies may serve as the basis for industry and consumer advisory levels of 0.10ppb C-CTX-1 equivalent toxicity in fish from the tropical Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and 0.01ppb P-CTX-1 equivalent toxicity in fish from Pacific regions.
Robert W Dickey; Steven M Plakas
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review     Date:  2009-09-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology     Volume:  56     ISSN:  1879-3150     ISO Abbreviation:  Toxicon     Publication Date:  2010 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-31     Completed Date:  2010-08-24     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1307333     Medline TA:  Toxicon     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  123-36     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
U.S. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Safety, Division of Seafood Science and Technology, Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory, 1 Iberville Drive, Dauphin Island, AL 36528, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Ciguatera Poisoning / etiology*,  physiopathology,  therapy
Ciguatoxins / analysis,  pharmacology
Consumer Product Safety*
Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental Monitoring
Fishes, Poisonous
Food Chain
Preventive Medicine*
Risk Assessment
Reg. No./Substance:

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