Document Detail

Cigarette smoking and submaximal exercise test duration in a biracial population of young adults: the CARDIA study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8371651     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Symptom-limited, graded exercise treadmill testing was performed by 4,968 white and black adults, ages 18-30 yr, during the baseline examination for the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Compared with nonsmokers, the mean exercise test duration of smokers was 29-64 s shorter depending on race/gender group (all P < 0.001), but mean duration to heart rate 130 (beats.min-1) ranged from 20-50 s longer (P < 0.05). In each race/gender group, test duration to heart rates up to 150 was 15-35 s longer (P < 0.05) in smokers than in nonsmokers after adjustment for age, sum of skinfolds, hemoglobin, and physical activity score. The mean maximum heart rate was lower in smokers than in nonsmokers (difference ranging from 6.7 beats.min-1 in white men to 11.2 beats.min-1 lower in black women, P < 0.001), although maximum rating of perceived exertion was nearly identical in smokers and nonsmokers. Chronic smoking appears to blunt the heart rate response to exercise, so that exercise duration to submaximal heart rates is increased even though maximal performance is impaired. This may result from downloading of beta-receptors caused by smoking. Smoking status should be considered in the evaluation of physical fitness data utilizing submaximal test protocols, or else the fitness of smokers relative to nonsmokers is likely to be overestimated.
S Sidney; B Sternfeld; S S Gidding; D R Jacobs; D E Bild; A Oberman; W L Haskell; R S Crow; J M Gardin
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and science in sports and exercise     Volume:  25     ISSN:  0195-9131     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Publication Date:  1993 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-10-14     Completed Date:  1993-10-14     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005433     Medline TA:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  911-6     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Oakland, CA 94611.
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MeSH Terms
African Continental Ancestry Group
Body Mass Index
Cotinine / blood
European Continental Ancestry Group
Exercise Test
Exercise Tolerance / physiology*
Forced Expiratory Volume / physiology
Heart Rate / physiology
Hemoglobins / analysis
Physical Exertion / physiology*
Physical Fitness / physiology
Sex Factors
Skinfold Thickness
Smoking / physiopathology*
Time Factors
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hemoglobins; 486-56-6/Cotinine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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